Дата публикации 15.11.2021
Значимость социально-гуманитарного образования в системе глобализации
Умбетбекова Куляш Мукарамовна
Лектор кафедры государственного и иностранных языков, Алматинский технологический университет, Алматы, Казахстан, firstname.lastname@example.org
Жакипова Мира Нурзадиновна
Лектор кафедры государственного и иностранных языков, Алматинский технологический университет, Алматы, Казахстан, email@example.com
Аннотация: В статье рассматриваются перспективы развития социально-гуманитарного образования в условиях глобализации. Сегодня наиболее продвинутая часть молодежи использует позитивное влияние глобализации для своего становления и личностного роста, в то время как неуспешные становятся аутсайдерами и пополняют количество маргинальных слоев общества, угрожая социальной безопасности государства. Увеличение подростковой преступности, жестокости – это результат социального неблагополучия, нехватки средств для получения качественного образования, достойной жизни. Цель исследования – определить мировоззренческие приоритеты социально-гуманитарного образования в эпоху глобализации. Значимость исследования непосредственно связана с актуализацией цивилизационного подхода наравне с модернистской. Результаты теоретического и эмпирического анализа показывают усиление социальных кризисов в казахстанском обществе, расслоение молодежного потенциала страны по уровню образования и культуры, мировоззренческим ценностям, а также усиливается разрыв между поколениями. Только сильная экономика, возвышая потребность молодого поколения способны создавать условия для борьбы с социальными кризисами. Высокий уровень образования и культуры, богатый интеллектуальный и научный потенциал молодежи можно создавать только в условиях экономического роста и в атмосфере высокого морального состояния общества.
Ключевые слова: молодежь, социально-гуманитарное образование, глобализация, мировоззренческие приоритеты, рыночное общество, рационализация.
Lecturer at the department of State and Foreign languages, Almaty technological University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Lecturer at the department of State and Foreign languages, Almaty technological University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
Abstract: This article examines the prospects of social and humanistic education in the context of globalization. Today, the most advanced part of young people use the positive influence of globalization for their formation and personal growth, while the unsuccessful ones become outsiders and replenish the number of marginal layers of society, threatening the social security of the state. The increase of juvenile delinquency, cruelty is the result of social disadvantage, lack of funds for quality education, decent life. The aim of the study is to identify worldview priorities of socio-humanitarian education in the era of globalization. The significance of the study is directly related to the actualization of the civilization approach on a par with the modernist approach. The results of theoretical and empirical analysis show the strengthening of social crises in Kazakhstani society, stratification of youth potential of the country by the level of education and culture, worldview values as well as the growing gap between generations. Only a strong economy, elevating the needs of the younger generation can create the conditions to combat social crises. High level of education and culture, rich intellectual and scientific potential of youth can be created only in conditions of economic growth and in the atmosphere of high moral state of society.
Keywords: youth, social and humanitarian education, globalization, worldview priorities, market society, rationalization.
Умбетбекова К.М., Жакипова М.Н. Значимость социально-гуманитарного образования в системе глобализации // Мир педагогики и психологии: международный научно-практический журнал. 2021. № 11 (64). Режим доступа: https://scipress.ru/pedagogy/articles/znachimost-sotsialno-gumanitarnogo-obrazovaniya-v-sisteme-globalizatsii.html (Дата обращения: 15.11.2021)
Introduction:In the 21st century the scale of globalization is affecting socio-economic and cultural and spiritual development of countries around the world. Globalization has increased differentiation between countries by the level of discovery and implementation of innovative technologies not only in the economic sphere, but also in the social one. Higher education institutions take into account the demand of the modern labour market in their personnel training. The investment policy of Kazakhstan is aimed at maximum investment in the system of technical staff training. The digitalization of society also affects the process of training social-humanitarian specialists, and there is a need to use a combined approach for the training of specialists of a new format.
The countries of Europe consider the Bologna process as an important component of the strategy for the creation of the most competitive knowledge-based economy in the world. The connection of the Kazakhstani education system to the European educational space was made in 2010 with the signing of the Bologna Declaration. Integration processes contribute to the unification of educational standards for personnel training. There is a need for a stronger role for humanities education in the region.
There is a need for a stronger role of humanitarian education in the preparation of new-format specialists. The positive point of implementation of the Bologna process principles is internalization of educational content, a sufficiently high level of foreign language proficiency of graduates, good skills in using information and communication technologies in practice and the ability to build interpersonal relations. The current generation is characterized by rational behaviour, which is indispensable for a modern market-oriented person. On the other hand, the rush to acquire marketable attributes influences the change in people's social values. Increased competition - a consequence of automation and the digital economy - is dictating new models of behaviour. Young people are becoming increasingly aware of new technologies, innovations, different computer programmes and foreign languages. These changes are creating a common standard of education without regard to national and mental conditions. What features do Kazakhstani universities retain for themselves? A distinctive feature of the Kazakhstani education system is that education is an important part of the activities of modern Kazakhstani universities. Teachers are involved in this activity.
The distinctive feature of Kazakhstani educational system is that education is an important part of the activity of modern Kazakhstani higher educational institutions. There are social and educational departments in the management structure of universities. The prospects for the development of modern social-humanitarian education in Kazakhstan are directly linked to the state programme "Spiritual Modernisation", the main provisions of which were outlined in an article by the First President of the country, N. Nazarbayev "A Look into the Future: Modernizing Public Consciousness" (Nazarbayev, 2017) [1,9]. Kazakhstani scholars appreciated the programmatic nature of this document and its timeliness in line with the changes taking place on a global scale.
In modern conditions, education is becoming a central value, and the cult of knowledge and professionalism of citizens is becoming an undeniable fact. According to Ulrich Beck, knowledge acquires a new political meaning (Beck, 1992) . Informatization of society drives the rapid spread of values of post-industrial civilization and civil society.
In Kazakhstan, national consciousness becomes the main core of modernization changes. All changes taking place in society are oriented to the peculiarities of national culture. However, modernization is not seen as a transition from a national model of development to some single, universal one. The main aim of Kazakhstan's national strategy is to create a model of development in accordance with the peculiarities of national culture, taking into account the level of development of the country.
Objects and method research: The research of prospects of development of social-humanitarian education in the epoch of globalization is based on theoretic-methodological, comparative-historical and contextual research of this problem and oriented on determination of its important role in formation of youth potential of Kazakhstan. The youth of Kazakhstan has become more pragmatic in the conditions of globalization and capitalization of the economy. As shown by numerous surveys among youth, traditions are perceived by them as outdated attitudes to reality, and values of personal freedom as the main goal of life (Abdikerova, 2017; Sadyrova, 2018)[2,17]. There has been a reassessment of values - the material prevails, career is placed above family, and free relationships are cultivated as the most convenient way of being irresponsible for the fate of another person. Many young people (34%) believe that "civil marriage" (cohabitation) is a new family model, and 11% question family values altogether (Zhanazarova, 2018) [3,140]. The serious transformation of Kazakh society leads to the weakening of the institution of the family and family-marital relations and the institutionalization of the mono-parent family. All these trends orient social-humanitarian sciences to study the nature of these changes and to raise the status of the family institution, taking into account the spiritual and cultural values of the older generation. The reassessment of many values, the rapid removal of boundaries, and the challenges faced by modern society make the need for a cultural foundation and national self-awareness expressed in cultural codes urgent. The cultural code of a nation is a set of patterns and stereotypes at the level of the social unconscious. Destroying archetypes, replacing them with externally introduced ones, can reduce any nation to an inferior level (Kylyshbaeva, Masalimova, 2018) [4,36].
In a globalized world, "the connection between people and their cultures, including their ideas, values, ways of life, has grown and deepened at an unprecedented rate" (Kumaravadivelu, 2008). Under the influence of the globalization of social life in Kazakhstan, the modern approach to the socialization of the individual has become dominant over the traditionally formed thinking and perception of reality. The liberalization of the economy and related changes have created a strong conviction among young people about the importance of personal freedom and responsibility. At the same time, poverty became associated with an unwillingness to develop, work and take control of one's life. Although not only personal problems but also institutional ones could be mentioned here. Liberalizing the economic system can be achieved by making the population's capabilities equal to the basic public goods and by building the foundations of a middle class society. The desire for a quick liberalization process involving only the more successful part of the population will multiply the number of the poorest groups who have neither the material nor the spiritual resources to do so. Today, the most advanced youth use the positive effects of globalization to become and grow as individuals, while the unsuccessful ones become outsiders and join the marginalized segments of society, threatening the social security of the state. The education institutes need to be active to enrich the content of the country's youth potential with humanistic values. In accordance with the objectives of the state programme "Spiritual Modernisation", social institutions need to engage in the spiritual socialization of young people, to mainstream advanced national traditions and values, and to shape the perception of national tradition as an original, unique and not archaic element of culture. Prospects for socio-humanitarian disciplines at this stage of development are linked to the actualization of national traditions and values, and the need to choose a model of development of national culture in the conditions of globalization, not to follow the universalization of culture and fight against negative consequences of globalization.
At present, the patriotic act "Mangilik-Yel", adopted on 17 January 2014 in the Address of N.A. Nazarbayev "Kazakhstan's way-2050: common goal, common interests, common future" (2014) is a priority direction of fundamental and applied project research in the field of social-humanitarian sciences of Kazakhstan. The national idea of "Myngilik Yel" calls on citizens to be patriots of their country, to cherish the common historical heritage, to increase the cultural diversity of the people of Kazakhstan, to follow the principle of development of the state language as the basis for consolidation of society and trilingualism as the main condition for competitiveness of the nation[5,12].
Globalization is bringing individuals, peoples and nations closer together, shaping a global consciousness, breaking down ethnic, national, racial, religious and other differences between people, creating a sense of blurring and sameness. This kind of change happens faster with the spread of market values, with the rationalization of public life. Values, the rationalization of social life. For the American or Western person, the effect of globalisation is less painful than for the Eastern person who has to lose civilization values and identity. The technology of social partnership that is disseminated between the parties involved goes against the traditional notions that shape hierarchical social relations between social groups, especially those with strong gender, age, status and other differences. The positive impact of globalization on the development of society should not be underestimated. However, for developing countries, such as Kazakhstan, its impact becomes negative due to the lack of civilized market relations and the absence of a legal framework for its effective development. The duality manifested in the behavior of young people in connection with the dialectic of traditional and innovative in modern conditions requires, first of all, the preservation of national traditions and values as the core of world outlook, and the determination of one's own position towards new global values, which act as an alternative path to progress and human freedom.
Since gaining independence in 1991, Kazakhstan, as a young post-Soviet state, has taken steps towards reviving national culture. The state programme "Cultural Heritage" (2004), the "Khalyk Tarikh Tolkynynda" programme (2013), the programme of spiritual modernization "Rukhani Zhangyru" (2017) are closely interrelated. Each of them has its own priorities in preserving the values of national culture. Cultural Heritage aimed to restore historical and cultural monuments and sites in Kazakhstan, Halyk Tarikh Tolkynynda to study documents from the world's leading archives on the history of our country, and Rukhani Zhangyru to change public consciousness, preserve culture and its own national code. All these State projects were aimed at the preservation and revival of national culture and are closely linked to the equally important "Intellectual Nation 2020" project (2008). The social sciences and humanities, in line with the government's calls, have worked to promote best national traditions and values among the population and to find a new model of culture in the context of globalization[7,91]. Humanities and social sciences, responding to a call from the state, have been working to mainstream culture in the population, to find new cultural models under conditions of globalization, taking into account national specificities so as not to succumb to the universalization of culture and to grapple with the negative effects of globalization. Toffler argues in "The Third Wave" that every culture will be approaching the result of the information revolution, the "Third Wave", with its own psychology and its own national character, developed over the centuries. The "third wave" will contain many cultures (Toffler, 1980; Burlatsky, 1989). It is possible that in the near future our culture will exist in the new civilization on an equal footing with others, preserving its characteristics, but qualitatively improved and enriched, according to the spirit of the time.
Kazakhstan as a developing state is still in the second wave, to use Toffler's language, but under the conditions of globalization, informatization of society promotes a rapid spread of values of the third wave, i.e. post-industrial civilization. The paradigmatic and historical nature of the scientific picture of the world requires that the methodology of the social and human sciences be truly aligned with the spirit of the times and the specifics of the area. This means, first and foremost, defining worldview priorities based on the specific historical context. "Methodological guidelines" (as well as science in general) are not static and immutable, but always have a concrete-historical character (Philosophy of Science, 2006). In addition to the temporal factor, there is a mental one, which is caused by cultural-psychological, socio-religious, political-economic, and other differences[8,31].
Growing stratification of society into rich and poor, and the emergence of intermediate social strata, contribute to the fragmentation of social attitudes, values, motives, interests, and needs of citizens. People who lived under a rigid ideology now face a new social reality that values individual freedom and a democratic culture. Under these conditions, the social and human sciences are acutely aware of the need, on the one hand, to construct society in the context of this culture and, on the other hand, to take into account the role of the individual (Berger, 1996). Social reality is changing so rapidly that the existing 'ideological vacuum', i. e. the absence of a system of core beliefs and values, is a reality that is changing so rapidly.
A 'ideological vacuum', meaning the absence of a core set of core state values that supersede democratised slogans, weakens the link between present and past and alienates different generations[9,11].
The challenge for the social sciences and humanities is to identify relevant methodological paradigms and provide a social ethos and strong traditions and values which are shared by the majority of the population. In the process of integration into the global education system, the best practices and technologies of education, which were inherited from the old system, as well as international standards, should be combined with the present Kazakhstani experience. Attempting to unify culture in the context of increasing integration processes reduces the effectiveness of institutional integration as it generates unequal sides of social interaction. The study and creative use of the experience of previous generations, the absorption of the culture of native people, the continuation of the cultural and historical traditions of fathers - all this is transferred to young people through educational activities, organized by cultural and educational institutions, including institutions of higher education. The multinational composition of the people of Kazakhstan, the presence of traditional and progressive values in the mentality of the population, the desire for freedom and the recognition of the power of authority, tolerance, all contribute to the effectiveness of the integral model in the sphere of education. This means that Kazakhstan's civilisation should be open to the positive values of Western rationalistic and Eastern traditional culture.
Results and discussion:The liberation of culture from ideologization in the modern conditions of Kazakhstan has benefited the wide application of the concept of "social technology" in the sphere of social sciences and humanities, which, unlike "methods", in addition to the scientific and educational aspect of teaching, takes into account the cultural consciousness of students and society as a whole. The culture of society, the nature of social order, and living social technologies can be seen in the behaviour and activities of individuals and social communities. In the modern context, the vertical, hierarchical, and organised structure of society has to be adapted to the needs of individuals and societies. The vertical, hierarchical structure of social interrelations in Kazakh society should be adapted to horizontal, civil forms of relationship. Ulrich Beck, German modernity researcher, author of the book "Reflexive Modernity" and "Risk Society", uses the terms "primary modernity" and "secondary modernity". The primary modernity characterises countries living in closed nation states ('con- ternary theory'). The growth of global and transnational organizations and the transnational state characterizes countries that belong to secondary modernity (Beck & Grande, 2010; Beck & Sznaider, 2005; 2006) . The idea of cosmopolitanism, touched on by Ulrich Beck, is characterised by the spread of transnational identities. Transnational identity is most strongly fixed in the border regions of Kazakhstan (in the north and south of the country), where the interaction of populations belonging to different states (Kazakhstan-Russia, Kazakhstan-Uzbekistan) is constantly taking place (National Strategies of Modernisation, 2018) . Transnational identity is also characteristic of the more educated part of young people in Kazakhstan. Considering the regional, social, cultural and religious peculiarities of citizens, including the younger generation, specialists of social-humanitarian science are working on the effective and painless introduction of civic forms of cooperation into hierarchically organised society. 2020year has been declared the "Year of the Volunteer" in Kazakhstan and, in this connection, the state is taking certain steps to develop civil activity of the population. At present, there are more than 200 volunteer organizations in the country, with more than 50,000 active volunteers (Volunteerism, 2020). Volunteering in Kazakhstan is gradually taking on a national scale. Mechanisms should be devised to gradually integrate youth into the social life of society. The lack of useful information of a socio-psychological, material and economic nature is acutely felt by young people belonging to at-risk groups. Mistakes, for a variety of reasons, should not become a reason for them to become outsiders in society. The social security of society requires a rapid response and immediate solutions to their problems. Involvement in voluntary work should be an obligatory part of the social of social rehabilitation of young people with a set of life deficits and psychological problems. Young people should be sensitised to the importance of social events at various levels, actively adapted to social reality, and civic values should be mainstreamed in society. In this way, the conscious involvement of citizens in socially useful activities comes into our life on a par with traditionally formed behaviour, performing acts of mercy and kindness through traditional values. Preserving the role of traditional behavioural regulators in an information society should in no way be at odds with the formation of civic consciousness of the population. The perception of tradition as values and not as obsolete elements of historical development contributes to the formation of human beings as beings who combine rational and irrational components of behaviour.
There is a historical continuity between the theoretical approaches of different times in sociology. This is evident in the views of M. Weber, who describes the modern world as "an iron cage of rational systems from which it is impossible to escape", and E. Giddens, who sees "the modern world as a juggernaut", thereby showing the inevitability of the formation of the rational man under the technological and digitalization of society. However, Giddens sees the post-modern world as a world of return to a moral society" (Ritzer, 2018). I would like to say that the civilizational paths of development of the West and the East should lead to a common result with different paths, given the differences in economic and cultural development. Therefore Kazakhstan, as an Eastern country, will adhere to the ideology of openness to positive values of Western rationalistic and Eastern traditional culture. The social-humanitarian science of Kazakhstan can offer models of socialization of young people in the conditions of globalization, informatization of the society taking into account local and regional values of the Kazakhstan society.
Conclusion:The main objective of higher education in Kazakhstan in the conditions of globalization is the formation of professional mobility of young people.However, educated, multilingual, professionally literate, competent, socially and professionally mobile youth, "living in a world of global mobility" (Bauman, 2004), are increasingly leaving the country. There is a problem of brain drain. The Eurasian theory is one of the most attractive development paradigms for post-Soviet countries, including Kazakhstan, which is based on the cultural unity of the peoples of Eurasia. Today's reality shows that the first condition of the new type of modernization for Kazakhstan should be the preservation of its own national code. The main priority of spiritual modernization is the preservation of the inner core of the national self means to develop within the paradigm of cultural differentiation (Huntington), despite the appearance of some hybrid forms in the spirit of globalization (Robertson), including cultural convergence, observed phenomena of McDonaldization, Americanization and economic capitalization (Riesman, 2018). [13,5]. Many contemporary scholars see modernisation as a transition from a national model of development to a unified, universal one. As Huntington argues, 'the thesis of the possibility of a 'universal civilisation' is a Western idea. It is in direct conflict with the particularism of most Asian cultures and their emphasis on differences that divide people from one another" (Huntington, 2007). Practice shows that different regions and countries choose their own models of development, which are reflected in the public policies of those countries.
Kazakhstan's social sciences and humanities define worldview priorities in line with the national interest and will educate young people to be civically active, while maintaining the country's cultural values and enriching them with new qualitative content. Many institutions of higher education in Kazakhstan pay great attention to the spiritual and moral education of young people, as well as research and educational activities. The Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi has introduced into the educational process such social-educational projects as "Aynalandy nurlandyr! ("Light up the world around you"),"The aim of the project is to raise the rising generation on the example of life and work of outstanding national figures and scientists-pedagogues, who made a significant contribution to the development of the country.Modern Kazakhstan is an example of a multi-ethnic society with a variety of cultures, religions and languages, which is why the preservation of civil peace and inter-ethnic harmony is a key state policy. In the conditions of globalization the main worldview priority for the social-humanitarian sciences of Kazakhstan will be the actualization of preservation of the cultural diversity of the peoples of Eurasia ("Kazakhstan as a Eurasian country") and development of the civil identity of the population. Civil identity is not in conflict with the preservation of national identity. At least at the current stage of the development of Kazakhstani society, national priorities are an important direction of social development.
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