Теория и методика профессионального образования | Мир педагогики и психологии №02 (91) Февраль 2024

УДК 372.881.161.

Дата публикации 22.02.2024

Интерактивные методы обучения иностранных студентов в техническом вузе

Умбетбекова Куляш Мукарамовна
Лектор кафедры государственного и иностранных языков, Алматинский технологический университет, Казахстан, Алматы, umbetbekova57@mail.ru

Аннотация: В статье рассматриваются современные методики обучения русскому языку как иностранному в техническом вузе. Обосновываются задачи применения интерактивных технологий в обучении; определяются виды диалогов. В статье также рассматриваются вопросы использования интерактивных методик обучения иностранных студентов. Использование интерактивных методов (ролевая игра, проектная методика, кейс-метод и др.) создает возможности для интенсивного усвоения речи в коммуникативном общении, мотивирует процесс обучения иностранных студентов.
Ключевые слова: современные технологии обучения, эффективность обучения, профессиональная подготовка, использование современных методов, технический вуз.

Interactive methods of teaching foreign students in a technical university

Umbetbekova Kulyash Mukaramovna
Lecturer at the department of State and Foreign languages, Almaty technological University,Kazakhstan, Almaty, umbetbekova57@mail.ru

Abstract: The article deals with modern methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language in a technical university. The article substantiates the tasks of using interactive technologies in teaching; the types of dialogues are defined. The article also considers the use of interactive methods of teaching foreign students. The use of interactive methods (role-playing game, project method, case-method, etc.) creates opportunities for intensive learning of speech in communicative communication, motivates the learning process of foreign students.
Keywords: modern teaching technologies, teaching efficiency, professional training, use of modern methods, technical university.

Правильная ссылка на статью
Умбетбекова К.М. Interactive methods of teaching foreign students in a technical university ​​​​​​​ // Мир педагогики и психологии: международный научно-практический журнал. 2024. № 02 (91). Режим доступа: https://scipress.ru/pedagogy/articles/interaktivnye-metody-obucheniya-inostrannykh-studentov-v-tekhnicheskom-vuze.html (Дата обращения: 22.02.2024)

Russian as a foreign language is a capacious and multidimensional concept. First of all, it is linguistic knowledge proper, i.e. knowledge of the language system and the ability to use it for communication purposes. The basis of foreign language proficiency is the ability and readiness to assess the situation of communication, to make adequate decisions regarding speech behavior. Teaching Russian as a foreign language to foreign students, forming communicative competence, we cannot ignore the technology that allows us to activate the cognitive activity of our students. Teaching Russian as a foreign language in a technical university is designed to solve a number of important problems, first of all, to promote the mastering of terminology of the future specialty (international economics, industrial fishery, food technology). Communication processes, irrespective of the situation in which they take place, have four common features:

- they unfold within specific historical and socio-cultural contexts;

- they relate to the interaction of people in specific places in a complex configuration of relationships;

- the purpose is the exchange of information or messages, the consciousness and interpretation of which take place in a shared context of symbolic meanings (i.e. culture);

- create or "enact" new contexts or speech spaces that help to shape or change the texture of social reality. The overall goal in this context is the formation of professional culture of a specialist of a technical university.

In order for foreign students to master the Russian language at an advanced level, which is necessary for them in the main professional educational program, teachers should know and take into account the specifics of a particular higher education institution (peculiarities of the organization of the educational processthe final chain of learning). The main task comes to the fore - mastering professional knowledge rather than the Russian language as such. The formation of skills and abilities of educational and professional communication is the basic component of communicative training of foreign students in technical universities. Mastering these skills and abilities is the most important condition for successful learning of special subjects of technical universities by foreign students. The principle of interactivity allows us to take into account in the process of learning the Russian language a multilevel, multidimensional description of individual forms related to their syntactic implementation as part of dialogue cooperation (sentences and lexical content) in thematic situations.

In our opinion, interactive methods, unlike active ones, focus on the collaboration of a teacher and students. An active methods are also possible within the framework of an authoritarian model (it will be reproductive or performing activities), while interactive methods can only be used in leadership and partnership models (a constructive and creative activity). Unlike these interactive methods and forms of learning can be considered as frontal, individual, pair or group interaction, and as a type of lesson, i.e. a form of organization of learning [1,p. 388].

The leading features and tools of interactive pedagogical interaction are: polylogue, dialogue, thinking activity, meaningful creativity, intersubjective relations, freedom of choice, creation of a situation of success, positivity. The interactive approach also consists in a special grouping of language material, based on the distinction of opposite and similar, main and peripheral phenomena within the system of the studied language. The expediency of introducing methodological models of teaching speech communicative behavior on the basis of role-playing games into the educational process. Interactive style of teaching is dictated by the orientation of modern linguodidactics to active use in teaching Russian language. The strongest motivating factor is learning techniques that satisfy the foreign students' need for the novelty of the material studied and the variety of exercises performed. The use of a variety of teaching techniques helps to consolidate language phenomena in memory, to create more persistent visual and auditory images, to maintain students' interest and activity. The lesson of Russian as a foreign language is considered as a social phenomenon, where the audience is a certain social environment, where the teacher and students enter into certain social relations with each other, where the learning process is the interaction of all those present. In this case, success in learning is the result of collective utilization of all learning opportunities. The use of role-playing games provides a wide range of opportunities to activate the learning process. Role-playing is a methodological technique belonging to the group of active ways of teaching practical knowledge of a foreign language. A role-playing game is a conditional reproduction by its participants of real practical activities of people, creates conditions for real communication. The effectiveness of learning here is primarily due to the explosion of motivation and increased interest in the Russian language. Practically all the teaching time in a role-playing game is devoted to speech practice, and not only the speaker, but also the listener is maximally active, as he/she has to understand and remember the partner's line, relate it to the situation, determine how relevant it is to the situation and the task of communication, and react correctly to the line. According to T.M. Balykhina, the role-playing game, from the point of view of the test, is aimed at testing the ability to "choose a strategy and tactics of speech behavior in a situation of reality" [2,p.304].

It should be noted that the role-playing game has its components, which should be taken into account when organizing game-based learning in groups with foreign students. Let us list these components:

1. situation as a set of specific conditions of speech behavior (for example, a job interview in a company; presentation of goods at an exhibition; a call to a company, etc.);

2. roles distributed among the participants;

3. topic determining the content of speech interaction;

4. plan of the task to "play" the simulated situation. The roles proposed by the teacher are almost always asymmetrical (director - subordinate; seller - buyer; teacher - student, etc.). Let's consider the example of the role-playing game "New vacancy". The roles of "company administrator", "candidate for a vacancy" are asymmetrical, they are dictated by the plot of the role-playing game: a call to the company in order to get approval for the declared vacancy [3.p.2]. Creative tasks are learning tasks that require students to perform creative activity. Students should not only present information, but also approach it from a creative point of view. Interactive methods are based on creative tasks, which are practice-focused. Completing such tasks students are looking for their own solutions, drawing on their personal experience. In this way, they develop communication and social skills. Creative tasks must meet the following requirements:

  • the submitted assignment must have several solutions;
  • the task should be useful for students so that they can use the acquired knowledge not only within the lesson;
  • the task should be interesting for students so that they can talk about a given topic;
  • the assignment must be related to the topic being studied

Students who are usually not very active during the lesson forget about the fear of public speaking cooperating with group mates. A teacher should not be afraid to joke and encourage students to be more open and sociable by completing such tasks. There are different types of educational games. Role-playing games are spontaneous. Intellectual games test students’ additional knowledges. In a foreign language class «warming-up activity», vocabulary games and games elements are usually used. To choose the right game a teacher should take into account the number of students, the duration of a training session, and so on. It is very simple to arrange an educational game; the special equipment is not required. The most important thing is that educational games should correspond to the teaching goals. [3,p.5]. The effectiveness of the role-playing game as a methodical teaching technique increases if the teacher takes into account the components of the game, correctly determines the duration of speech communication of participants. Let us refer to the basic requirements for organizing a role-playing game:

  • the game should stimulate motivation for learning, arouse students' interest and desire to perform the task well, it should be conducted on the basis of a situation adequate to the real situation of communication.
  • The role-playing game should be well prepared in terms of both content and form, clearly organized. It is important that students are convinced of the need to fulfil a role well. Only under this condition their speech will be natural and convincing.
  • The role play should be accepted by the whole study group.
  • It is necessarily conducted in a friendly, creative atmosphere, causes a sense of satisfaction and joy in students. The freer the participant feels in the role-play, the more initiative he/she will have in communication. Over time, he will have a sense of confidence in his abilities, in the fact that he can fulfil different roles.
  •  The game is organized in such a way that foreign students can use the practiced language material in active speech communication with maximum efficiency.
  • The teacher should unconditionally believe in the role-playing game, in its effectiveness. Only under this condition will he be able to achieve good results.
  • The teacher's ability to establish contact with the participants of the game is of great importance. Creating a favorable, friendly atmosphere at the lesson is a very important factor, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated.

In the course of the game, the teacher may take on a role, but not the main one, so that the game does not turn into a traditional form of work under his/her supervision. It is desirable that the social status of this role would help him to unobtrusively direct speech communication in the group. When assessing the speech behavior of students in a role-playing game, it is necessary to pay attention to the correctness of solving communicative tasks, first of all, to the adequacy of solving the communicative tasks, to the completeness of the implementation of the points of the task solution, to the accuracy of the disclosure of the points of the speech program, to the strategy of dialogue (entering the dialogue; support; completion), to the observance of the norms of speech etiquette, to the preservation of the style of business speech, to linguistic correctness, to pronunciation and intonation. For example, it should be clearly understood when the communicative task is not completely (partially) understood by the student, when he or she consciously misses at least one point of the speech behavior program or inaccurately discloses it. A vivid example of this is the violation of speech etiquette norms such as "you"(forman style). In order to overcome the participants' stiffness, facilitate their integration into the role and naturalness of their behavior, it is desirable to minimize the teacher's intervention in the game process. His/her functions are reduced mainly to familiarizing the participants with the conditions, goals and techniques of the game and ensuring its normal course. The teacher carries out general control of the game process. Of course, it is he who provides methodical assistance in achieving the game goals. The teacher can demonstrate a similar version of the presentation or show its plan in a multimedia presentation. Role-playing games of professional orientation can be presented from the perspective of the development of public (presentation) speech. For example, within the framework of a presentation of goods, services. Communicative strategy in role-playing games (presentation of goods; buying and selling goods) is considered as a certain plan of speech behavior, which is expressed in the choice of a system of well-thought-out step-by-step actions of the game participants. Each communicative strategy is characterized by a certain set of communicative tactics. A speech tactic is understood as a specific speech move of a student in the process of implementing a speech strategy[4,p.3].

The most interesting educational game is offered in the Unit «Inventors of the Past». Students should correlate the inventors with their inventions using the verbs: to discover, to open, to invent, to establish, to launch, to introduce, to split, to formulate, e.g. “Newton opened the laws of motion” [5]. The game can be more interesting, when the right answers are scored and according to the results of the game, the winner is determined. Teaching experience shows that students like the competitive element in games and actively interact with their team members. A project is a form of work, which is planned and completed by students. It usually includes communication, intellectual and emotional activity. The project method includes the use of a wide range of problematic, research, search methods that are clearly focused on a real practical result that is significant for the student .The project methodology provides a student-centered education and training, as it practically incorporates other modern technologies, for example, such as collaborative learning. Projects develop imagination, creativity, memory and also critical thinking, planning, practical and problem solving skills. In addition, students can advance their organizational skills and talents. Joint projects are an important part of modern education model, which is focused on research. Working on a project is a teamwork and requires being responsible for the completing of a particular task and evaluation the results of their own work and the work of group mates [6,p.194].

The Internet tasks are a part of E-learning, the most useful interactive technology. In education, it is widely used to collect information and to complete research in different areas. The Internet has become a major learning and effective teaching tool. Teachers can post tutorial videos and notes on the school website, which makes learning process more interesting and diverse. They can also use animation, Power-Point presentations, and images to draw students’ attention [6,p.195].To improve efficiency of the innovative pedagogical technologies by teaching English at technical universities distance learning (Skype, Viber, WhatsApp, e-mail, Internet chat) is recommended together with computer learning (electronic text-books, virtual libraries, educational portals) and multimedia resources. In addition to the course many interactive games based on the Internet resources were developed. A very useful is Quizlet [6,p.196]. It is a free service that helps memorize new words presented in the form of study cards. You can make your own cards with new words, add images, audio and play games to learn vocabulary. Using Quizlet, you can send students a link to a module. They also can search for a particular course by the tutor’s name. In this way the interactive teaching method can be very useful helping students to find their own interests by the learning process, to overcome the fear of communication, to improve public speaking skills and cooperation skills. Additionally, the interactive electronic technologies in different fields of study that have existed in the language classroom can be used by improving such technical skills like memorizing the words and practicing grammar. Thereby Russian language teachers should make use of it as a medium to support the learning process. Students are usually more enthusiastic and excited to learn things while using electronic devices. Due to this teachers have to engage students in language learning and encourage them to acquire language skills through modern technology, when students are directed to communication. It is clear that multimedia are crucial for the process of teaching Russian. It means that teaching quality would benefit from electronic technologies.

Список литературы

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