Теория и методика обучения и воспитания (по областям и уровням образования) | Мир педагогики и психологии №12 (53) Декабрь 2020

УДК 378(147)

Дата публикации 28.12.2020

Case study - эффективный метод формирования профессиональных качеств в обучении иностранному языку студентов экономических специальностей

Мукушева Гульсум Рамазановна
кандидат пед.наук, доцент кафедры «Иностранных и русского языков», Карагандинский экономический университет Казпотребсоюза, Казахстан, Караганда, gmukusheva@mail.ru
Колесникова Галия Борисовна
студентка факультета Бизнеса, Права и Технологии, Карагандинский экономический университета Казпотребсоюза, Казахстан, Караганда

Аннотация: Статья посвящена case study современному, активно используемому методу интерактивного обучения иностранным языкам в экономическом вузе. Использование этого метода в преподавании развивает критическое мышление и коммуникативные навыки межличностного общения студентов. Также авторы подчеркивают, что работа над кейсами требует от студентов активного развития исследовательских навыков, а также совершенствует навыки сотрудничества и работы в команде. Статья рассматривает проблему практического применения кейс-метода в обучении иноязычному профессиональному общению, описываются этапы работы, показаны достоинства и сложности применения сase study на занятиях по иностранному языку
Ключевые слова: Инновационный, case study, метод ситуационного анализа, учебно-практические задания, критическое мышление, навыки межличностного общения, погружение в созданную профессиональную языковую среду, самостоятельно исследуют.

Case study is an Effective Method of Forming Professional Qualities in Teaching a Foreign Language to Students of Economic Specialities

Mukusheva Gulsum Ramazanovna
cand. Sci. (Pedog), assistant professor, Karaganda Economical University of Kazpotrebsoyuz, Kazakhstan, Karaganda
Kolesnikova Galia Borissovna
Student of Karaganda Economical University of Kazpotrebsoyuz, Kazakhstan, Karaganda

Abstract: The article is devoted to a case-study - a modern, actively used method of interactive teaching of foreign languages in an economic university. Using this method in teaching develops students' critical thinking and interpersonal communication skills. The authors also emphasize that working on cases requires students to actively develop research skills, as well as improves collaboration and teamwork skills. The article considers the problem of practical application of the case method in teaching foreign language professional communication, describes the stages of work, and shows the advantages and difficulties of using case study in foreign language classes.
Keywords: Innovative, case study, situation analysis method, educational and practical tasks, critical thinking, interpersonal communication skills, immersed in the created professional language environment, independently investigate.

Правильная ссылка на статью
Мукушева Г.Р., Колесникова Г.Б. Case study is an Effective Method of Forming Professional Qualities in Teaching a Foreign Language to Students of Economic Specialities // Мир педагогики и психологии: международный научно-практический журнал. 2020. № . Режим доступа: https://scipress.ru/pedagogy/articles/case-study-effektivnyj-metod-formirovaniya-professionalnykh-kachestv-v-obuchenii-inostrannomu-yazyku-studentov-ekonomicheskikh-spetsialnostej.html (Дата обращения: 28.12.2020)

Innovative pedagogical activity is one of the important components of the educational process. This is the basis on which the competitiveness of the university is built in the educational services market. Innovative activity is associated with the scientific and methodological work of teachers and with the educational, scientific and research practice of students. It differs from the traditional education system in that it contributes to a qualitative change in the personality of the student and includes the widespread use of interactive teaching methods. The actuality of using these methods is dictated by the specifics of the training of future specialists who will work in sphere of economy, and helps to turn the knowledge of a foreign language from passive to active. In the process of joint activity, students interact with each other and with the teacher, who becomes an equal partner and consultant [1, p.53].

Interactive learning is a special form of organizing educational and cognitive activities. The goal is to create such learning conditions in which the student feels his success, intellectual growth; it makes the learning process productive.

To solve educational and practical tasks the teacher can use such interactive forms as a round table (discussion or debate), brainstorming, business and role-playing games, a master class, a project method [2], case-study (analysis of specific situations).

The case-study method is one of the most effective methods of interactive learning in teaching a professional foreign language. The essence of the method consists in the independent activity of students in using real social, economic and business situations. Students must independently investigate the situation, understand the problem, suggest possible solutions and choose the best one. Cases are based on actual materials or close to the professional situation.

Case-study methodology was developed at Harvard Business School in the 20s of the XIX century. But these ideas come from deep virginity. One of its first creators was Socrates, he understood many centuries ago that the knowledge gained in the finished form, is less valuable and therefore not as durable as the product of their own thinking. He saw the teacher's task as helping his listeners to independently obtain

"knowledge that, in a sense, is already present in their heads, like a child in the womb. [1] Millennia later, the use of the method, the progenitor of which was Socrates, will be considered education and call it the case study method.

Scientists and methodologists define the case study method as an "advanced" teaching method and highlight its strengths: the ability to work in groups on a single problem area; using the principles of problem learning; the opportunity for students to obtain not only knowledge, but also a deep understanding of theoretical concepts; the ability to create their own models of activity, develop skills for simple generalization of information [3].

The widespread distribution of the method in the world began in the 70-80s of the 20th century, at the same time the method gained fame in our country too. Nevertheless, the development of the method in our country was very contradictory at that time. On the one hand, the use of the situation analysis method led to the widespread use of play and discussion methods of teaching, but on the other hand, the pressure of ideology, the closed nature of the education system gradually expelled the method from classrooms.

A new wave of interest in the case study methodology began in the 90s. Reforming the economy has generated a significant demand for specialists who are able to act in situations of uncertainty, a high degree of risk, specialists who can analyze and make decisions. The universities began a massive renewal of the taught disciplines and courses such as Management, Marketing, Political Science, and Sociology began to fill the educational process, bringing with them the expansion of the number of interactive teaching methods. The changes taking place in the education have been characterized by many analysts as a transition from the classical to the post-classical education. This transition manifested itself in a change both in the goals and the values of the education. Let’s compare classical education goals and values. The post-classical education:

Classical education Post-classical education

• Mass character                      • Individuality

• Stability                                • Instability

• Traditionalism                      • Innovation

• Completeness                       • Continuity

• Regulations                          • Creativity and originality

• Goal                                     • Self-end

• Result – knowledge             •Result - competence, independence.

The case study method is not just a methodological innovation; the spread of the method is directly related to changes in the current situation in education. We can say that the method is aimed not so much at mastering specific knowledge or skills, but at developing the general intellectual and communicative potential of the student and teacher. It acts as a teacher's way of thinking, his special paradigm, which allows him to think and act differently, to develop his creative potential. This is facilitated by the widespread democratization and modernization of the educational process, the liberation of teachers and the formation of a progressive style of thinking, ethics and motivation of pedagogical activity in them.[4]

Actions in the case are either given in the description, and then it is required to comprehend them (consequences, effectiveness), or they must be proposed as a way to solve the problem. But in any case, the development of a model of practical action seems to be an effective means of forming the professional qualities of the students.

The process of creating a case is a complex pedagogical system. Teachers note that "the case method provides an opportunity for students to actively use oral practice in the absence of a language environment, which is necessary for the formation of professional competence for communication in a foreign language" [5, p. 741]. Moreover case study is a professional intensive method that develops basic skills in teaching foreign languages: reading, speaking, listening and writing”.

The case study method is a student-centered teaching methodology that develops critical thinking and interpersonal communication skills. This method can be used to encourage students to make the most of a foreign language in the classroom. The method is perfect for learning a language and is aimed not so much at mastering specific knowledge or skills, as much as on the development of the general intellectual and communicative potential of students and teachers. The essence of the method lies in the self-dependent foreign language activities of students immersed in

the created professional language environment and makes it possible to combine theoretical training and practical skills necessary for creative activity in the professional sphere. The case study method is not universal and is used successfully only in combination with other methods of teaching foreign languages because in itself it does not provide for mandatory standard knowledge of the language. The problem is to choose topics for the case study that are not too difficult to understand and correspond to the level of the learners.

Thus, a student independently thinks over the task given in the case, introspects into it, can predict and demonstrate his decision, which is submitted for discussion.

Two different types of case study can be distinguished: those that help students to acquire specific skills based on the content of the materials of this case study: conducting negotiation, interviewing, problem solving skills or decision-making [6], and those that allow the teacher to choose independently the methodology and strategy of teaching in a given group of students [7].

Before choosing a case study topic, it is necessary to determine the purpose of the lesson. The most interesting cases are those that allow for several different assessments of the same situation, leading to several equally likely conclusions, each of which in its turn assumes different algorithms for subsequent actions.

The cases are the detailed stories about a specific situation with the data sampling, unresolved and provocative problems, situations or questions. The information included in them should be sufficiently complete and the situations likely, but this information should not be so complete as to prevent students from discussing or researching it.

They can be short for class discussions, or long for semester-long projects and focus on one problem and have a clear statement of the question. Usually those cases are chosen that correspond to the objectives of the course, allowing students to apply for what they learn in practice.

The case should be written in an understandable language, using familiar terminology. First of all, a case diagram is drawn up: the situation is specified, the goals, objectives, and the actors are indicated, and their characteristics are given; the activities of each participant are described and links are given to the sources of

information. The teacher who draws up or chooses the type of case should analyze the material, taking into account the audience for which the case was compiled. Thus, a student needs to independently consider the situation given in the case, collect information, develop and present the result of his work for discussion.

Classes using the case study method are divided into three parts.

1. Introductory lesson - preparation of a case study, introduction to problem solving analysis and preliminary study.

2. The lesson itself, using the case study method, is divided into sections, which include meetings, presentations, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are discussed.

3. Analysis of the lesson - the teacher analyzes language and speech errors, management skills and the correctness of the preparation of written documents developed by students to solve the problem of this case study.

Students should be provided with information on how they have to analyze a case study. Below is an example of how to help students do this.

• Read the case carefully several times.

• Identify the main questions / problems.

• State the goals.

• Identify options for discussing issues.

• Develop criteria for evaluating the selected options.

• Choose the best option.

• Decide how the option should be implemented.

• Make a plan of action to solve the problem.

The sample of a case study for a short class discussion: the topic of the lesson is “The bargaining zone”. The students are going to take part in a short negotiation in a restaurant in which neither side really has a BATNA. The question was: «Will you get into an argument or can you create value through skillful bargaining? » Before this case the students were given the information about the Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA). Then for practicing their negotiation skills they have to make a decision solving the problem given in the case. [8. p. 32]

The case follows:

A colleague once advised you that, when eating out, you should always tip the waiter in advance rather than at the end of your meal. That way you'll get better service. So you decide to put your colleague's theory to the test.

At the end of a very successful project, you take your client out for a first-class dinner to celebrate. And when they excuse themselves for a moment, you call the waiter/waitress over, inform them that you're entertaining a VIP and would really appreciate 'the red carpet treatment'. You tell them you expect to spend around $200, but, instead of the usual $30 tip, you're prepared to give them $50 now if they make an extra-special effort. But just as you're about to hand them the note, you change your mind. If you give them the money now, where's their motivation to give you better service? Then you have a flash of inspiration. You neatly tear the $50 bill in half, give one half to the waiter/waitress and tell them that they can have the other half when you leave if you're happy with the service. They look a little surprised, but take the money and head back to the kitchen...

The teacher has to be sure the students all understand the word “tip’ in this context, as well as phrases like “to excuse yourself” (to leave a meeting, etc., in order to go to the toilet), “the red carpet treatment” (treating somebody like a VIP – a very important person) and “a flash of inspiration” (a good idea that comes to you suddenly). The teacher could also point out that in many countries, a torn banknote can still be exchanged for a new note at a bank, as long as the two halves match.

Then the teacher distributes the role cards and feedback forms and goes through them with the class so that everybody understands what they need to focus on during the negotiation. The class is divided into pairs and roles are assigned. The teacher monitors carefully while students are reading their role cards and helps with any problems. The students present their negotiations showing the language and techniques they used. At the end, trainees use the forms to give each other feedback. Then open up the discussion to include the whole class, focusing on the tactics that different trainees used during the negotiations and the outcomes reached. Finally, trainees read the commentary given in the Students Book to see how well they did and they discuss it with the teacher. If there is an odd number of the students, one

student can observe the negotiations using the feedback form, and report back on the strengths and weaknesses of the negotiations.[9. p. 60.]

The role card for Speaker 1 (Waiter/ Waitress):

The fifty-dollar bill

You have done your best all evening to please the rather strange person at table nine, who gave you half a $50 bill at the beginning of the meal and told you they’d give you the other half of your tip at the end if the service was superb. It’s been an incredibly busy night, but you’ve really made an effort to give them excellent service, even at the cost of keeping a few other customers waiting. You’re working in the restaurant to pay off some heavy debts, so you really need the extra tip. The standard rate is 15%, but the $50 would be fantastic.

The role card for Speaker 2 (Diner):

The fifty-dollar bill

Your little experiment didn’t work. The service during your meal was nothing special - adequate, but no more. Clearly, your waiter/waitress was just expecting you to hand over the other half of the $50 bill anyway. When your guest leaves the room, call the person who served you over, express your dissatisfaction and offer them the standard $30 tip if they’ll give you their half of the $50 back. Obviously, you could afford to give them the $50 — it’s all on expenses, anyhow - but that’s not the point. People need to learn you have to earn your rewards in life! Call the waiter/waitress over and tactfully explain.

The given commentary to discuss

How did you do it? Hopefully, you didn't just back down (win-lose) or settle for an unhappy compromise at $40 (lose-lose). Perhaps you wasted a lot of time and energy trying to justify your position to the other party and found that this doesn't really work either.

Ask yourself: who has more power in this negotiation? At first glance, the waiter seems to have more power. After all, they have nothing to lose, whereas the diner could lose their $50. But, look closer. The diner is actually prepared to give the waiter the standard $30 tip. So they're really only down $20 if no agreement is reached - and it's all on expenses anyway. On the other hand, the waiter is about to

lose the money they badly need. There's no easy solution because neither party has an alternative to agreement which leaves them with anything except their principles. So, in the absence of a solid BATNA, they somehow need to create value. Either negotiator could take the initiative, but perhaps the waiter should make the first move. Something like the following might work:

'Sir/Madam, I'm really sorry that I wasn't able to give you the first-class service you wanted this evening. When you offered me the torn fifty, I thought it was a fun challenge and I really did try to do a good job. But you see how busy it's been tonight and I'm afraid I have to agree with you that on this occasion my service was only average. So I'm happy to accept the thirty dollars. Thank you very much ... But if you ever decide to come back to this restaurant, and I really hope you do - I'll make sure I give you the best service you've ever had. And that's a promise. Meanwhile, please accept these handmade chocolates to go with your coffees - compliments of the house. Have a nice evening.'

This strategy ensures the waiter gets their $30, preserves everybody's self-respect, avoids any conflict and sets the diner a challenge in return. It may even prompt them to say: 'I like your style. I tell you what - here's $35, anyway. And when I do return to this restaurant, I'll expect you to live up to your promise.'

And who knows? The diner might end up becoming a regular customer. What's that worth in tips? In a negotiation, never box yourself into a fixed position - think outside the box.

The question was: «Will you get into an argument or can you create value through skillful bargaining? » Suggested answer:

The waiter/waitress has no real BATNA because the customer could simply refuse to hand over a tip, in which case the waiter/waitress gets nothing. Similarly, the waiter/waitress could refuse to give back the half banknote, in which case the customer gets nothing. The main variable, the quality of the service, cannot be changed during the negotiation. [8. P 71]

The case study method has been used for many years in business, law, medical and social studies, but it can also be used in any discipline where teachers want students to understand how to apply what they learn from real-life situations. The

cases are presented in many formats from a simple question "What would you do in this situation?" to a detailed description of the situation with accompanying data for analysis. Whether you use a simple case study scenario or a complex, detailed one depends on the objectives of the course.

The use of the case study method in the learning of a foreign language is as follows [11]: the use of this method improves knowledge of a foreign language and makes it possible to: apply it in the professional field; develop creative thinking, teaches students to think in language; conduct presentations (the ability to publicly present your work in a foreign language); formulate questions; lead discussion, give reasons for answers; improve the skills of reading professional sources in a foreign language and processing information in the specialty; work as a team and develop a collective solution; to carry out individual and group independent work of students.

Список литературы

Gazilov M.G. Comparative method of studying time system of French language]// Universities for Tourism and Service Association Bulletin. 2013. № 3 (26). P. 53–56.

2. Gozalova M.R. [Project activity as one of the methods of development of communicative competence // Service in Russia and abroad]. V. 8. 2014. № 2 (49). pp. 89–97.

3. Dolgorukov A.M. Case study as a method // Practical guide to tutor of system of Open education on the basis of remote technologies.]. M.: Center for Intensive Education Technologies, 2002. P. 21–44.

4. Changes in educational institutions: the experience of research using the case-stage method / edited by G.N. Prozumentova, Tomsk, 2003.

5. Gorbatova T.N., Rybushkina S.V. Use of case method in teaching a foreign language in the professional language training in non-linguistic University] // Young scientist. 2015. № 7. pp. 741–743.

6. Cotton, D., Falvey, D. & Kent, S. (2000) Market Leader, Intermediate Business English, Longmann: Pearson Education Limited.

7. Crowther-Alwyn, J. (1999) Business Roles 7–12 Simulations for Business English, CUP:Cambridge.

8. Powel Mark. International Negotiations. / Cambridge University Press. 2012., pp.111

9. Day Jeremy. International Negotiations. www.cambridge.org/elt/internationalnegotiations

11. Kolesnik N.P. [Case studies in interactive learning pedagogy /guidelines]. 2 parts /41 – SPb NP «Strategy of Future», 2006. pp. 19–23.

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