Дата публикации 20.05.2020
Взгляд на формирование иноязычных коммуникативных компетенций как современная тенденция в обучении профессионально-ориентированному иностранному языку.
Мукушева Гульсум Рамазановна
кандидат пед.наук, доцент кафедры, Карагандинский экономический университет Казпотребсоюза, Казахстан, Караганда, email@example.com
Колесникова Галия Борисовна
студентка факультета Бизнеса и Права, Карагандинский экономический университет Казпотребсоюза, Казахстан, Караганда
cand. Sci. (Pedog). assistant professor, Karaganda Economical University of Kazpotrebsoyuz, Kazakhstan, Karaganda
a student of, Karaganda Economical University of Kazpotrebsoyuz, Kazakhstan, Karaganda
Abstract: This article is devoted to the urgent problems of the formation of foreign language communicative competence in the professional training of students of an economic profile, and describes the components of foreign language communicative competence. The authors describe the conditions that ensure the formation of professionally-oriented foreign language communicative competence among students of economic universities.
Keywords: communicative competence, professional communication, multimedia technologies, linguistic, sociolinguistic, discursive, and strategic competences.
The importance of language communication in all its implementations (the internationalization of European educational standards, the development of the quality of teaching foreign languages, increasing the requirements for translation in various professional fields, etc.) is growing today. The social order has changed: modern society needs specialists who are fluent in a foreign language, who can use it in various fields: professional, intellectual, emotional, receptive and creative. (Panfilova, Panfilov and Merzon, 2015). The theory and practice of the modern education must be changed: professional communicative competence in a foreign language becomes the most important quality of modern scientists . The future specialist must be highly qualified and demonstrate a high level of the knowledge of a foreign language. It is determined by the ability to use the language and the sociocultural set of knowledge, skills and abilities that allow one to vary communicative behavior depending on the functional situations of foreign language communication and create the basis for qualified information and creative activity in various fields, i.e. the ability to enter into communicative contact requires skills to navigate in social situations and control it. The knowledge of cultural variability contributes to the formation of students' perception of multiculturalism as a norm of coexistence and prepares them for the active and full-fledged cooperation in the modern multicultural world.
However, the problem of the formation of foreign-language communicative competence of future economists is not fully understood in theory and practice. The cultural realities of the English language often conflict with the canons and foundations of a foreign-speaking society, which is a powerful barrier to the acquisition of a foreign language as a means of communication.
An analysis of scientific research and practical experience in the field of teaching foreign languages to students revealed a contradiction between the objective need for students to develop professional linguistic communicative competence and the lack of scientific and pedagogical grounds and the complex of pedagogical conditions for its formation in the higher education system.
Professional communication in the field of professional activity becomes a reality for students only if a certain level of communicative competence is formed that is strictly correlated with their communicative needs. Professional communication takes place in typical situations, which are determined by the place of an action, by social roles and communication goals of the speakers and they are realized through their communicative intentions. The training of professional communication, which is a speech on the topics of the specialty, requires taking into account the features of oral professional speech. The most important conditions for the conceiving and stimulation of the speech in modern methods include the presence of the motive of utterance, situation and personal orientation, which together give the speech a communicative nature .
The process of the teaching professional oral communication is aimed at solving the main methodological problem - to teach students to implement simultaneously two types of speech activity - “professional speaking” and “professional listening”. We consider it allowable to use the term “professional listening” along with the generally accepted terms “professional communication”, “professional speech”, and “professional reading”. Professional listening is the process of perception, recognition and understanding of professionally directed speech in the process of professional communication (i.e. listening to the speech on a topic of a speciality that differs from the others by the content of the code transmission of the message) .
It is known that more attention in teaching foreign language communication at a non-linguistic university is given to reading by profession, which is extremely important. However, practice shows that in different situations of professional oral communication the exchange of information, knowledge and work experience is impossible without skills to understand professional audio texts and professionally directed speech.
Plenty of specialists are not always able to attend international conferences, symposia and negotiations, i.e. in direct bilateral communication when it is possible to question the speaker, ask him a question to find out one or another position of the report. In this case, you can use audio or video reports made at these events, i.e. there will be indirect one-way communication. In the process of training POFL, situations reflecting professionally significant areas of communication are used, such as the participation of economists in international conferences, symposia, business negotiations, obtaining the necessary information on their specialty through the media (television, radio), as well as by telephone and participating in conference calls at the enterprise, where listening comprehension of audio texts of reports, messages made in a foreign language on this profile is required.
Despite the reorientation of the goals of teaching foreign languages in non-linguistic universities to the formation of communicative and professional skills remain unresolved yet, though several works (Onisina I.S., 1991; Tynyshtykbaeva A.B., 1999; Stamgalieva N.K., 2000; Moldakhmetova G.Z., 2000) were devoted to the problems related to the understanding of foreign texts by ear through the development of prognostic skills in the specialty, as well as professional speaking, reading and writing, [4,5].
The use of modern multimedia technologies and Internet resources best promotes solving this problem. Classrooms, equipped by modern requirements, can actively attract these technologies.
When teaching professional speech activities of economics students, it is necessary to recognize the leading role of motivation. The creation of conditions for the formation of motives that encourage students to learn leads to the emergence of prerequisites for their successful professional activities, and therefore, to teach and train a highly qualified specialist in the world economy.
Consequently, the formation of professionally-oriented foreign language communicative competence among the students can be established based on the degree of proficiency in intercultural, professional and linguistic competencies characterizing the ability and readiness of the graduate for professional activity, as well as for life activity in the context of social interaction.
In this article, linguistic, discursive, and sociocultural linguistic and speech competencies are analyzed. If you ask a student of a foreign language department what the purpose of the language course which he is attending, then he will most likely answer that the goal of the course is to teach the grammar and vocabulary of the language being studied. However, if they are asked what their purpose as language learners is, they are likely to answer so that they can communicate freely in that language. The point, of course, is not that in reality, the purpose of the language course was to teach exclusively grammar and vocabulary, at least with such an outdated approach, and the results were, of course, far from satisfactory. Currently, the main focus of teaching a foreign language has shifted from purely teaching grammar and vocabulary to providing effective communication skills. In the terminology of linguistics, a language course should not only have “linguistic competence” as a goal but also “communicative competence” as a whole.
But what do these terms mean? Communicative competence is a term coined by Dell Hymes in 1966 in response to the concept of “linguistic competence” by Noam Chomsky [6,7]. Communicative competence is intuitive functional knowledge and control of the principles of language use. As Hymes notes: “... a normal child gains the ability to make up a sentence, not only as a grammatical aspect, but also as necessary to use it. A child gains communicative competence, he knows when to speak, when not, and what to talk with, when, where, where, how. In short, a child becomes able to perform a repertoire of speech acts, take part in speech events and evaluate their achievements by others”.
In other words, a foreign language speaker must use it not only correctly based on linguistic competence, but also appropriately on the assumption of communicative competence. Of course, this approach does not detract from the importance of studying the grammar rules of the language. This is one of the four components of communicative competence: linguistic, sociolinguistic, discursive, and strategic.
The linguistic competence is the knowledge of the language system: its grammar, and vocabulary, written presentation (spelling). The grammar component includes the knowledge of sounds and their pronunciation ( phonetics), rules that define sound interactions and patterns (phonology), word formation through flexion and derivation (morphology), rules, which define a combination of words and phrases for structuring sentences (syntax), and a way to convey meaning through language ( semantics).
The discursive competence is the knowledge and skills associated with speech activity, to understand audio and written texts, i.e. the formation of all four types of speech activity (speaking, listening, reading, writing). Thus, the competence of the discourse is associated with the organization of words, phrases, and sentences for communication.
Actually in any situation of the foreign language communication, there is always a speaker and a listener, great attention should be paid to the development of listening skills in the process of students studying non-linguistic faculties, i.e. the ability to understand their interlocutors by ear. Listening is a receptive form of speech activity, which is the perception and understanding of speech by ear.
Teaching to understand the comprehension of the texts in the specialty will be successful and effective if:
a. psycholinguistic features of the process of listening and understanding, as well as factors of adequate perception and understanding of texts, will be taken into account;
b. learning to listen and understand is based on a pretext complex of cognitive supports that form prognostic skills;
c. if the formation of prognostic skills will be considered in a single continuum with interpretative skills and the ability to generate a text.
In practice, the factors of successful understanding of the audio text in the speciality were considered and analyzed. One of the important paralinguistic factors is intonation, which is the significant natural support in the process of understanding a sounding text. As for the linguistic factors, the presence of semantic and linguistic excess in the text, also the presence of keywords and economic terms, this is another important factor for successful understanding. The psychological factors such as the ability to create a setting for the performance of certain communicative tasks, as well as the formation and development of the prognostic skills in the process of learning to listen and understand are one of the priority factors in understanding speech by ear. Therefore, the understanding of speech aurally implies the possession of the following skills by students of non-linguistic faculties of universities:
- use linguistic and contextual guess to reveal the meaning of unfamiliar words;
- rely on information preceding the audio text, on the plan, on keywords of the text, on its structure and storyline, on your speech and life experience in your native language, on knowledge of the subject of the message;
- recognize the types of sentences by intonation;
- rely on headings and subheadings;
- clarify details with the help of interrogations, requests for repetition;
- compare, classify information following a specific
- summarize the received information and record it in writing .
Particular attention paid to the process of preparing and writing scientific articles in English, as students increasingly participate in various scientific conferences. One of the main requirements for foreign publications is a good, complete and clear presentation of the material for a wide range of readers. In addition, the article is required to be written in a good foreign language, and the article must meet the special requirements that can be found in the specialized literature on the scientific style.
To prepare and write a high-quality scientific article in a foreign language, you must know and comply with the requirements of foreign scientific publications, namely, how to write an abstract, choose keywords, and write an introduction, the main part of the article, conclusion, and links. An important condition for the successful preparation of an article in English is also the scientist’s willingness to use language tools creatively, precisely specific phrases, grammatical structures used in various language situations. All of the above is achieved with the help of problematic discursive tasks, developed and aimed at improving students' foreign communicative competence in mastering a professionally-oriented foreign language .
The sociocultural (sociolinguistic) competence is the knowledge of sociocultural rules and their use, that is, knowledge of how to use the language correctly and respond to it, moreover, the ability to adapt in a foreign language environment, the ability to predict possible socio-cultural obstacles in situations of intercultural communication and ways to eliminate them. And moreover skillfully following the rules of courtesy in a foreign culture, to show respect for the traditions, rituals, and lifestyle of the representatives of another cultural community. In addition, the formation of sociocultural competence involves mastering the ways of representing native culture in a foreign language intercultural communication .
There is no doubt that only the close interaction of all components of the foreign language communicative competence in the process of acquiring linguistic, socio-cultural and intercultural knowledge and skills will ensure the development of communication skills in the main types of speech activity.
One of the main tasks at non-linguistic faculties is to prepare students for the use of knowledge of a foreign language in their future professional activities, namely: to teach a future specialist to read and understand the content of texts in the speciality. It should be noted that in the professionally-oriented foreign language system of teaching students a special place is taken for training in information searching and reading of scientific texts in a particular branch of knowledge.
Foreign-language communicative competence reflects the knowledge, understanding, using of languages and other types of sign systems, technical means of communication in the process of transferring information from one person to another using a variety of forms and methods of communication (verbal, non-verbal). Consequently, communicative competence is considered as the functional knowledge of the language, which involves the interaction between different people or between a person and a written or oral text and includes linguistic, discursive and sociocultural competence. These components must be observed when teaching a foreign language, and they usually relate to modern teaching methods used in teaching a second language. It is best to master it if the student is immersed in the culture of the country whose language he is studying.
During the implementation of the projects to improve the professional foreign language communicative competence of students of non-linguistic faculties, special attention was paid to the formation of knowledge in modern multimedia educational technologies, they got acquainted with some programs for teaching computer science English, the principles of modern electronic dictionaries and translation systems, as well as Internet resources for studying English.
Computer programs, which include audio and video additions to texts and functions that track student performance, are the most effective. One of these programs is Bridge to English. It makes it possible to improve listening and pronunciation skills, expand vocabulary, and perform grammar exercises of varying degrees of complexity. University students use English-Kazakh, English-Russian, Kazakh-Russian, Russian-English electronic dictionaries for translation. The most useful are Multitran, Lingvo (www.multitran.ru, www.lingvo.ru, www.yourdictionary.com), translation systems: Google, Prompt, Stylus, Sokrat, Reverso Context.
In the educational process of the Karaganda Economic University of Kazpotrebsoyuz, a comprehensive program for teaching a professionally-oriented foreign language has been developed and implemented. The main objective of the program is to improve the basic professionally significant knowledge of a foreign language and motivation to acquire such knowledge. The curriculum of each course of the discipline "Foreign Language" is close to practice and implements the principle of professional motivation for a foreign language.
Significant changes in modern society over the past decade, namely the opening of state borders, increased mobility, the development of modern information technologies, are reflected in the higher education system. Teaching a foreign language not only provides knowledge and develops skills, but also contributes to the formation of a new type of linguistic personality whose qualities are determined by the needs of society. These qualities are a priority task of the educational process and are taken into account when developing higher education standards.
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