Методика преподавания языка | Филологический аспект: Методика преподавания языка и литературы Методика преподавания языка и литературы №02 (13) Март 2022 - Апрель 2022
Дата публикации 11.04.2022
Основные аспекты изучения турецкого языка в Казахстане
Токсеитова Айдана Ергаликызы
магистр гуманитарных наук, преподаватель кафедры методики преподавания иностранных языков, Казахский Национальный Женский Педагогический Университет, Алматы, Казахстан
Юлдашева Венера Аббасовна
магистр педагогических наук, преподаватель кафедры методики преподавания иностранных языков, Казахский Национальный Женский Педагогический Университет, Алматы, Казахстан
Аннотация: Представленная статья посвящена анализу основных аспектов изучения турецкого языка как иностранного. Авторы делают обзор основных подходов обучение турецкого языка как иностранного в нашей стране. В статье также рассматривается специфика обучения и подходы в процессе обучения в системе образование Республики Казахстан. В статье обосновывается актуальность и рассматривается специфика обучения турецкому языку в высших школах Казахстана.
Ключевые слова: аспекты изучения, турецкий язык, специфика, обучение, актуальность.
master of art, teacher of the department of Foreign Language Teaching Methods, Kazakh national women's teacher training university, Almaty, Kazakhsta, firstname.lastname@example.org
Master of Pedagogical sciences,Teacher of the department of Foreign Language Teaching Methods, Kazakh national women's teacher training university, Almaty, Kazakhstan, email@example.com
Abstract: The presented article is devoted to the analysis of the main aspects of learning Turkish as a foreign language. The authors review the main approaches to teaching Turkish as a foreign language in our country. The article also considers the specifics of teaching and approaches in the process of teaching in the system of education in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The article also discusses the importance and specifics of teaching Turkish at high schools in Kazakhstan.
Keywords: aspects and learning, the Turkish language, specificity, teaching, relevance.
Токсеитова А.Е. Юлдашева B.A. The main aspects of learning Turkish in Kazakhstan // Филологический аспект: международный научно-практический журнал. Сер.: Методика преподавания языка и литературы. 2022. № 02 (13). Режим доступа: https://scipress.ru/fam/articles/osnovnye-aspekty-izuchenie-turetskogo-yazyka-v-kazakhstane.html (Дата обращения: 11.04.2022)
Nowadays, learning Turkish is becoming a practical necessity to prepare students for a lively dialogue of parallel cultures in a multilingual world. Mastery of several foreign languages, first and second, including Turkish, is becoming the norm in our modern society.
Turkish is the largest language by number of speakers (about 70 millions, including more than 60 millions of people considering it their native language); it is a part of Oghuz-Seljuk subgroup of Oghuz group of Altai family. Turkish is in the second top ten languages in the world in terms of prevalence. Turkish is an important means of communication, and is in demand in the sphere of business, as close cooperation with Turkey makes learning of this language promising. Therefore, the prospect of learning oriental languages is now increasing as they are gaining a leading position in the international arena. Turkish is one of them. It is becoming in demand in Denmark, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece and France.
The modernization of the content of education at the present stage of societal development is not least related to innovative processes in the organization of foreign language teaching. This is early (compulsory) learning of a foreign language. Another achievement is the organization of high school education at such a level that students have the opportunity to study not one but two or even three foreign languages. In many high schools of our republic there is already some experience of students learning not one, but two or even three foreign languages. In high schools it is possible to open up boundless expanses for the interaction of languages and cultures, to educate a global citizen in tolerance towards other peoples, to strive to understand the diverse multicultural and multilingual world community.
Тhe issue of which modern languages should be studied as a second foreign language can, at present, be solved with a minimum of approximation. The main factors influencing the process of language selection should be taken into account, such as:
a) the degree of popularity and prevalence of the foreign language;
b) the social order of society;
c) regional conditions and needs;
d) training of specialists in teacher training institutions;
e) communication and cognitive needs and interests of high schoolchildren.
At present in high schools of Kazakhstan the traditionally studied languages prevail as English, German and lately Turkish. In view of the fact that English is now most often studied in high schools, it can be assumed that Turkish and German may well be the most in-demand languages studied as a second language. It should be noted that Turkish, unlike other foreign languages, is closely related to the Kazakh language, which in combination and in essence will determine the content, form and methods of its teaching in general.
The process of introducing a foreign (closely related) language into the curricula of high schools takes place on the initiative of teaching teams and can be characterized as an attempt by high schools to respond to the social need for multilingual education for as many members of society as possible. In this context, there is considerable interest in theoretical research in the field of multilingual education and an awareness of the need to analyze and summarize the experience that has already been gained[3,95].
The presence of two or three foreign languages in the curricula has become an indicator of the prestige of an educational institution, and the development of fundamental problems of teaching it is becoming particularly relevant. Today, there is a strong tendency to increase the number of those wishing to learn Turkish.
In order to achieve meaningful results in learning Turkish, it is most rational to introduce it no sooner than students have acquired an elementary level of communicative competence in their mother tongue and their first foreign language.
The question of the number of hours can be controversial. Of course, the more hours the better. But the reality of high school life makes it necessary to take into account the objective possibilities of the basic curriculum. Hours for the second foreign language are allocated at the expense of the high school's component hours. It is important to define, first of all, a minimum (necessary and sufficient) volume of Turkish course. At the same time we still proceed from the well-known postulate that it is easier to master a second foreign language than the first, third, easier than the second, etc., i.e. the volume of the Turkish course is compensated by the considerable linguistic experience of students acquired while studying their native language[4,18].
The following consideration shows the most effective methods of teaching Turkish; Firstly, it is the method of relying on students' linguistic experience. The peculiarity of teaching Turkish is that students have already formed general academic skills, namely:
- to work in different modes (individually, in pairs, in groups);
- observe, compare, contrast, analyze and argue their ideas;
- recognize and differentiate between language phenomena and words (articles, verb conjunctions, sentence structure, proper names etc.)
- use a dictionary, guess the meaning of unfamiliar words by word formation and context, and retrieve the information needed. All of the above has a positive impact on the process of mastering the Turkish language[5,7].
Another very important method of teaching Turkish is the comparative method. It refers to the need to take advantage of the interaction of the mother tongue (Kazakh) while mastering closely related Turkish, which takes place in a multilingual learning environment. The experience of students in learning their mother tongue provides the opportunity to positively transfer the knowledge, skills and abilities already acquired to the field of study. It is known that in more than 80% of cases Kazakh and Turkish have significant similarities. This means that the more vocabulary the students have in their native language, the more support they can get when learning Turkish. We consider the cognitive-communicative method of teaching Turkish to be one of the most effective methods of teaching Turkish, which implies conscious mastery of the teaching-speech material. All kinds of purely imitative and reproductive types of exercises fall by the wayside in the cognitive approach to learning. The main place in the learning process is given to exercises and tasks of a cognitive nature, when the language under study becomes a real means of comprehending other linguistic facts, phenomena, as well as information from other knowledge (history, culture, tradition, etc.) unknown to students.
In the process of teaching the Turkish language there is a development, improvement of the sense of language, acquaintance of students with the national culture of the Turkish people. Work with the text at Turkish lessons creates conditions: for realization of the functional approach at studying of lexis, morphology, syntax; for realization of intrasubject (interlevel), and also interdisciplinary communications; for formation of a language personality; for spiritual and moral education of students, for development of their creative abilities.
An important role in teaching the Turkish language is played by the method of focusing on the pupil's personality, his/her development, independence, taking into account his/her abilities, needs and interests. It is important to achieve the formation of internal motives for learning, self-esteem and creative activity in students. In order to adapt normally to the current situation, when the world is becoming a single multinational, multicultural and multilingual whole, representatives of society at all levels must understand how important it is to know different languages (not only native and compulsory English, which is no surprise today, but also less common languages), because learning languages is a way to foster tolerance, cooperation, mutual understanding between peoples, respect for individuals, regardless of their racial, national, religious, ethnic or linguistic background.
To conclude we would take under consideration the fact, that the 21st century has been declared the era of multilingual personalities and polyglots. While this goal is lofty and noble, it is also difficult and complex to realize in practice.
If the teacher and the students are willing, it is possible to organize quality teaching and to ensure a minimum level of communicative competence in the Turkish language being studied.
Thus, what, exactly, are the results to be achieved in plurilingual teaching (in our case, in teaching Turkish?!
1) students master basic communicative activities in both mother tongue and Turkish while developing as linguistically interesting individuals;
2) In the context of a new language policy, Turkish language learning can play a significant role and have a positive impact on the development of a speech culture, intellectual abilities and the education of an internationally oriented personality. And this should not be underestimated today.
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