Дата публикации 30.11.2021
Самообразования будущих учителей: основные перспективы и проблемы
Жунисова Жадыра Кондыбаевна
Магистр педагогических наук, лектор, Алматинский технологический университет, Алматы, Казахстан
Аннотация: В статье рассматриваются вопросы самообразования будущих учителей как компонента развития в информационной среде современного общества. В настоящее время молодежь стремится к получению образования самостоятельно, самообразование для личности общественно значимо и полезно, направлено на эффективное повышение общего и профессионального знания. Проанализированы психолого-педагогические труды, теоретические и методологические подходы к исследованию проблемы самообразования и рассмотрены в аспекте историко-философского разви- тия. Уточнено понятие «самообразование» применительно к учителю как специалисту, осуществляющему свою профессиональную деятельность в условиях современной школы. Выделены особенности проявления и уровни познавательной деятельности студентов как основы их подготовки к самообразованию. Определены признаки и функции самообразования. Проведено исследование, в ходе которого авторами были решены задачи определения отношения студентов к самообразованию и саморазвитию, определены условия развития умений самообразовательной деятельности, разработаны пути стимулирования будущего учителя к самообразованию в процессе профессиональной подготовки.
Ключевые слова: самообразование, образование, технология, компетентность, профессиональный, информационный, система образования, самообучение, саморазвитие, самосовершенствование.
Master of pedagogical sciences, lecturer, Almaty Technological University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Abstract: The article deals with the issues of self-education of future teachers as a component of development in information environment of modern society, and also that nowadays the youth strives to obtain knowledge them- selves, self-education for the person is publicly important and useful, aimed at efficient improvement of general and professional knowledge. Psychological and pedagogical researches and theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of self-education are analyzed and considered it in terms of the historical and philosophical development. The authors have elaborated the concept of «self-education» in relation to the teachers as a specialist, carrying out their professional activities at the modern school. Highlighted the peculiarities of the occurrence and levels of cognitive activity of students as the basis of their preparation for self- education. Defined the characteristics and functions of self-education, in which issues of self-education is a means of saturation throughout life. The research is conducted, during which the authors solved the problem of determining the attitude of students towards self-education and self-development, the conditions for the development of skills of self-educational activities, developing ways of stimulating the future teacher to educate themselves in the process of professional training.
Keywords: self-education, education, technology, competence, professional, information, system education, self-training, self-perfection.
Жунисова Ж.К. Самообразования будущих учителей: основные перспективы и проблемы // Мир педагогики и психологии: международный научно-практический журнал. 2021. № 11 (64). Режим доступа: https://scipress.ru/pedagogy/articles/samoobrazovaniya-budushhikh-uchitelej-osnovnye-perspektivy-i-problemy.html (Дата обращения: 30.11.2021)
Introduction: The formation of the world academic community of Kazakhstan in accordance with the conditions of integration and the state of the open educational space in higher education institutions is a key issue in improving the quality of higher education in line with modern requirements. The Address of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev "The Third Revival of Kazakhstan: Global Competitiveness" states that, first of all, the role of the education system should be changed. Our goal is to make the education system the core of the new model of economic growth.
Curricula should focus on the development of critical thinking skills and the ability to search for information independently. To this end, there is a need to update professional standards in accordance with the requirements of international best practices, such as the labor market and on-the-job training.
Special attention will be paid to the quality of the higher education system. It is necessary to strengthen the requirements and control over the quality of staff, educational programs and material and technical base in higher education .
The concept of continuing education is a basic mechanism for the development of the global information community, a significant change in the social services of education and self-education, their goals, content, functions and technologies.The mainstay of world renewal is education and self-education. The more intensive and extensive the self-education, the more the process in the education system and means the development of the subject in it. The intensity and breadth of self-education in connection with the transition of society from the industrial to information development reflects the qualitative changes in education that lead to the renewal and reconstruction of the world as a highly developed entity in the education system.
In the context of dynamic, economic, social and cultural transformation of society, self-education is one of the most effective human goals.
The main issue of self-education includes the following contexts of the main trends in the development of information processes in modern society, in particular: the constant increase of common semantic information in society;
- adaptation, provision, demonstration of common semantic nature in the public environment, as well as the constant increase of public information, increasing the exchange of information within economic, political and cognitive structures, increasing the speed of information exchange through various organizational forms and means of information exchange, communication channels increase in bandwidth, constant increase in the level of individual and group communication;
- The education system is the main source of self-education and self-development;
- The school is an essential support for the implementation of its activities. Self-education as a category of pedagogy is of great interest to pedagogy and psychology.
The great teacher of the Russian people, the founder of pedagogical anthropologist K.D. Ushinsky "Only a free and beloved activity can satisfy all the needs of the human soul and find the necessary world it seeks" . D.B. Elkonin, a prominent psychologist of the Soviet era, wrote: "Educational action is, first of all, the process of its implementation and, as a result, the emergence of changes in the subject focused on action" .
Self-education is a set of cognitive activities of an individual that is active, self-regulating, has personal and professional significance, and is aimed at the search and development of social experience for self-improvement. Self-education can be considered in two different senses: in the literal sense - "self-learning" (in the narrow sense - self-study) and "self-creation" (in the broad sense - self-formation, self-formation).
In the second sense, self-education is a form of transformation of human activity from a reproductive to a productive mechanism that brings a person closer to creativity. Of course, in the period of social transformations and cataclysms, educational processes and self-education become an integral part of the social environment in which they take place. This was noted by A.Y. Eisenberg, B.M Bim-Bad, A.K. Gromtseva, V.V. Serikov and other scholars.
The researcher Y.U. Kalugin, complementing the views of V.V. Serikov, in his definition revealed the essence of office work in self-education, considered it as an integral part of human self-development. He believes that "the process of building self-learning skills to master certain elements of social practice is a multifunctional search tool, being one of the directions of self-development in the form of professional orientation, a way to meet cognitive needs" .
According to many authors, in order to implement self-education, a person must first identify and develop certain abilities and qualities, that is, pass the initial stage, and therefore prepare himself for the above actions. GI Beretskov, understanding this period as a preparatory course, in the process - training is socially important and useful for the individual, aimed at effectively improving their general and professional knowledge,The scientific organization of all work, the formation of skills and abilities of self-learning in the culture of intellectual labor, defined as a special type of learning process that involves the help of a teacher or a competent person, including targeted activities .
Based on the introduction of V.V. Serikov, self-education, self-knowledge, self-improvement, spiritual growth, self-expression, developed through pedagogical interaction in the context of a person ready for self-education, within the general and individual characteristics of the person. We consider it as a complex form of interaction in the broadest sense of achieving and implementing the goals of self-education, which includes а person with the same characteristics will be important to society and, as a result, can be considered stable in professional, social, spiritual and other spheres of life.
The above-mentioned qualities of the person, his readiness for self-education can be considered as a necessary mechanism of adaptation to the former graduate of the university. In other words, he can easily move into his professional career in order to become a professional with a relevant theoretical knowledge. Cognitive and self-learning concepts are closely related. It should be noted that self-education is an aspect of further training.
Consider the concept of "knowledge". Knowledge is not an indicator of an individual's knowledge as a set of knowledge offered by a society for the acquisition of social experience in a particular professional environment in accordance with his intentions, needs, desires, in an independent and socially significant nature. According to Hegel, knowledge is an attempt to achieve independence in order for a person to have meaning and truth, "the more educated he is, the more real power he can have." Depending on the current situation, professional self-education should be focused on professional agility and mobility, the content of professional work and the formation of adaptability to changing conditions, the prevention of interpersonal conflicts and professional frustrations, the creation of conditions for self-realization.
L.N. Kulikova, I.L. Naumchenko, G.S. Sukhobskaya were involved in the issues of professional self-education of teachers. In their theory, self-education is considered as a necessary component that provides continuous training of students. According to Y.N. Kulyutkina and G.S. Sukhobskaya self-education is a self-regulatory and self-governing activity with both managerial and supervisory functions.
A.K. Gromtseva, studying self-education, identified its own characteristics as one of the special types of cognitive process: the teacher's knowledge in the practice of study; lack of confirmation in specially mastered data; conscious attempt to go through all stages of the cognitive process; selective reception of information, actualization of previously acquired knowledge. Conditions for self-education are created in the cognitive process in a changing, exploratory and regenerative nature. Significant qualities of self-education are independent search, acquisition of knowledge, high motivation, continuing development .
Using the principles of this theory, the concept of "self-education" of the future teacher consciously develops important professional qualities of the teacher independently and for good reason, raises and updates the existing knowledge, pedagogical skills in order to master and form the skills to achieve the desired level of professionalism. defined as a type of activity.
A teacher's self-directed learning activities aimed at developing important professional qualities mean a teacher's self-improvement and professional development.
Objects and method research: The function of eliminating future teachers’ knowledge;
– self-development - a function of the development of creative abilities, such as perception, consciousness, memory, thinking in the perception of the world; methodological;
– improving the worldview of the individual, overcoming professional weakness; communicative - to establish links between sciences, professions, social groups, age differences gaps;
– direction in creative work;
– development of creative thinking - overcoming the inertia of independent thinking, preventing the decline of social position; psychological (almost psychotherapeutic)
– the preservation of the fullness of existence, in relation to the development of human intelligence to establish a connection with its advanced level; gerontological - identifies functions such as communication with the environment through organisms.
Thus, self-education is learning, knowledge is an integral part of a person's life and a lifelong experiences and practices.At present, issues related to the professional competence of specialists are relevant. One of the reasons for the low level of professionalism of specialists is the lack of independent cognitive activity (or a small share) in the traditional system of teaching and education. Vocational and pre-vocational training should be one of the mandatory components of the system of continuing education .
The practice of self-education is the skill of any professional, especially in the heyday of new technologies and computer technology, which are entering all spheres of life in the formation of the information society. requires. This, in turn, requires a person to acquire new knowledge, skills and abilities on their own.
Self-education of future teachers is a creative connection between the characteristics of the student's work and methodological knowledge, the pursuit of goals in the newly acquired psychological and pedagogical self-action. Expanding, deepening, supplementing the acquired knowledge; to compensate for the shortcomings of basic education and to be a tool for obtaining knowledge; to promote the formation of their own style in pedagogical activity; The tool of self-knowledge and self-improvement serves as a student's self-education as a future specialist .
Therefore, a person needs to be professionally trained and able to apply self-education skills. The main purpose of training a future teacher in the university is to determine the positional competencies in the formation of his main professional and pedagogical competencies. The higher education institution is not able to take over the training of highly qualified specialists, as these competencies are known and formed only in the course of a specialist's professional activity.
The foundations of a future teacher's professional competence are laid while he or she is studying at the University. The formation of the readiness of the future specialist for self-education is carried out in the main process of independent cognitive activity of students. A wide range of new technological tools will make a significant difference in people's lives, increase intellectual abilities, increase the volume of operations for the evaluation and management of meaningful actions in industrial and social society.It is these trends that require a rethinking of the content of education, the changes in the modern education system, the criteria for the purpose for which a person is ready for self-education, and the main interest.
A teacher's general culture and professional level are determined not only by the knowledge he or she has acquired and mastered, but also by his or her ability to supplement his or her knowledge through self-study. Therefore, the ability of a young teacher to learn on their own is a social order of society, it is necessary to develop such skills while studying at school.
The need for continuous improvement of professional skills is due to the specifics of pedagogical activity, students must be distinguished not only by higher professional education, but also by the readiness of their activities to implement creative innovations. Only teacher's professional activity and positive, positive attitude in improving pedagogical skills can improve the state of the learning process on their own. In addition to the development of professional competence, self-education presupposes non-professional characteristics of the individual.
Results and discussion: Researchers distinguish the reasons for self-education as follows: social, professional and cognitive; also defines the following principles of self-education: sequence in the search and acquisition of new information; consistency; planning; sequence and connection with the implementation of solutions to specific practical problems. In this regard, the process of self-education includes the following interrelated stages: goal setting, problem identification, planning, selection of sources and selection of their content, performance of practical tasks, diagnosis and determination of results .
The formation of the competence of the future teacher for self-education is the process of transition of the student to self-education through independent work. The quality of self-education depends on a person's ability to organize their activities. Recognition of the values of the basics of pedagogy in the educational process by the individual, the change in attitudes to the subject-object relationship has led to the transition to a number of topical issues in modern anthropology, predetermines the practical importance of the search for efficiency.
Higher education is not limited to university education. On the contrary, in today's social environment, when the competitiveness of the specialist is one of the most pressing issues in the context of social instability, the rapid introduction of new technologies, the mass transition of various production equipment to computer technology, as well as the obsolescence of information. , exposure to the harsh conditions of the social environment requires additional efforts (intellectual, psychological, physical) to adapt to the professional environment and find their place in that environment.
The saturation of almost all industrial and non-industrial social sectors of society with information technology is growing, which in turn depends on the success of human professional activity through the use of computer technology and the replacement of information with new media. Over the last few years, the personal computer has been updated twice, and it is logical that the information support for it has also changed.
Of course, while studying at the university, for an average of four or six years, the graduate joins the public with the knowledge of outdated technologies. In such cases, it is unlikely and impossible to become a competitive specialist without self-searching and acquiring new knowledge. After graduating from university, a former student should not only study on their own in order to reduce the time spent in the professional environment, but also to find a way to mobilize their efforts to keep up with the emerging new technologies.
Self-education contributes to the teacher's freedom to choose issues related to personal and professional development, taking into account the individual abilities and aptitudes. The tendency of teachers to be independent in the process of self-education allows them to compare and equate their achievements with best practices, to have a positive effect on the mood of the teacher, to show self-confidence in the profession, as well as to improve their pedagogical capabilities.
This contributes to the formation of the reasons for the development of professionally important qualities in the profession. IG Vertiletskaya's work on this issue is more interesting, for example, the distribution of socio-economic factors, the formation of a valuable orientation that affects the teacher in the stability of self-education, organized factors, conditions affecting the teacher's self-education, psychological factors, cognitive self-education. motivations and interests,
pedagogical factors, compliance with the rules of professionalism of the teacher.
Taking into account the above-mentioned factors, IG Vertiletskaya identified a system and principles of pedagogical conditions for increasing the activity of self-education of the teacher .
Conclusion: The main principles of improving the quality of education are the sequence and frequency of work to improve the quality of education; equalization of responsibilities of the state, education departments, research institutions, educational institutions and teachers; protection of the interests and rights of teachers and students; reliability of the education system process; regularity of the new content of knowledge in the implementation of the interaction of all parties involved in the process. It is necessary to work on improving the professional skills of teachers in two directions:
- improving the quality of teacher training;
- increasing the competence of teachers:
To improve the quality of self-education of teachers, it is necessary to ensure the following conditions:
– the creation of a system of selection of candidates for preparation for admission to pedagogical universities;
– development of the concept of teacher training taking into account the world experience;
– establishment of an educational institution responsible for training in a particular specialty and educational literature;
– certification and accreditation of all educational institutions engaged in the training of teachers;
– creation of an experimental platform in each institution to strengthen the practical training of future teachers from the first year of study;
– pedagogical colleges should move to the training of bachelors.
In order to plan the process of self-education of teachers aimed at the development of professionally important qualities, it is necessary to clarify and reveal the pedagogical conditions that contribute to the development of professionally important qualities in the process of professional development. The teacher's readiness for continuous self-education should be holistic and interrelated on the basis of cognitive, motivational and practical readiness to actively realize their professional potential in pedagogical activity as a dynamic feature of the person.
Modern high school needs to train teachers who are constantly improving their professional skills, who are able to choose the forms and areas necessary for self-education and professional development.
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