Теория и методика профессионального образования | Мир педагогики и психологии №4 (33) Апрель 2019

УДК 378.147

Дата публикации 30.04.2019

Преподавание аллюзии будущим переводчикам как способ повышения переводческой компетенции

Гринько Анна Викторовна
старший преподаватель,Кыргызский государственный университет им. И. Арабаева, институт Лингвистики, кафедра Лингвистики, Кыргызская республика, г. Бишкек, annagrinko@mail.ru
Размерица Александра Ильинична
старший преподаватель,Кыргызский государственный университет им. И. Арабаева, институт Лингвистики, кафедра Лингвистики, Кыргызская республика, г. Бишкек, razmeritsa@gmail.com

Аннотация: В статье говорится о необходимости преподавания аллюзии для будущих переводчиков, так как эти знания помогут им развить их переводческую компетенцию. В статье дается краткий обзор определений таких терминов как перевод, переводческая компетенция, аллюзия, таким образом, обосновывается необходимость использования аллюзии при обучении английскому языку. Обобщается практический опыт использования аллюзии на уроках.
Ключевые слова: перевод; переводческая компетенция; аллюзия; анализ текста; закрепление знаний

Teaching Allusion for Future Translators as a Way of Developing their Translation Competence

Grinko Anna Viktorovna
senior instructor, I. Arabaev Kyrgyz State University, Institute of Linguistics, Linguistics Department, The Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek
Razmeritsa Alexandra Iliinichna
senior instructor, I. Arabaev Kyrgyz State University, Institute of Linguistics, Linguistics Department, The Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek

Abstract: This article gives an account of and the reasons for teaching allusion for future translators, as the extensive knowledge of this kind can be quite helpful for developing their translation competence. This article contains an overview of key terms definitions, such as translation, translation competence, allusion, thus substantiating the need of using allusions at English lessons. Then the authors generalize their own experience of using allusions at their lessons.
Keywords: translation; translation competence; allusion; text analysis; consolidating knowledge

Teaching future translators is a very painstaking and quite challenging process. First and foremost, we should understand what translation really is. There are some definitions of translation. Nida thinks that translation consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalence of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style [3, 16]. Newmark defines translation as “a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language” [2, 7]. John W. Schwieter and Aline Ferreira mention that in Cognitive Translatology, translation is a subset of complex behaviors aiming to solve communicative needs, whose common thread is the use of at least two (spoken, written or signed) languages [4, 3]. L. Latyshev states that the word translation has two meanings, first, it is the text created by a translator either in oral or written form, the other meaning of this word is translators’ activity or the process of creating such text [6, 17].

The definitions of translation can vary greatly, but it is an undisputed fact that translator requirements include vast knowledge in different spheres. V. Komissarov concludes that translators can perform their social functions successfully only if they know the source language and people’s history and culture reflected in it thoroughly [5, 8]. L. Latyshev thinks that a combination of knowledge, abilities and skills that enable a translator to do their job tasks successfully is called translation competence [6, 12]. John W. Schwieter and Aline Ferreira indicate that some authors nowadays use competence as a (near) synonym to expertise. For instance, they mention that Jaaskelainen lists several skills of translation experts. Translation experts have automated certain linguistic operations, they process larger text segments, display stronger selfmonitoring skills, and exploit their world and cultural knowledge better. Moreover, J. W. Schwieter and A. Ferreira claim that in interpreting, differences between experts and novices have been found to relate to chunking of information, reasoning, speed of processing, and individuals’ knowledge base and its organization [4, 6].

A. Chuzhakin states that high class interpreters should have extensive knowledge of history, culture and religion, current political and economic events of the country where the language is spoken. (Knowing the same facts about their own country is taken for granted). They should know something about everything and everything about something. Chuzhakin cites T.P. Klukina, M. Klukina-Vituk, V.K. Lanchikov, who think that the translator must know Greek mythology, Roman history, great writers’ works, The Bible, aphorisms and popular quotations. A citation or allusions (indirect references) to all these can frustrate you if you don’t know what they mean. You can make a great impression on the audience by citing the exact equivalent “Бойся данайцев, дары приносящих” (Beware of Greeks bearing gifts) or pale horse – “конь бледный” (from Apocalypses) [7, 18-19]. Unfortunately in our systematic curriculum there are no subjects where students may obtain knowledge of this kind. That is why we teach allusion for future translators and consider it to be very important.

According to Large Encyclopedic Dictionary, allusion (from Latin allusion – a hint, a witty remark) is a stylistic device, a hint, using a word with a similar pronunciation or mentioning of a well-known real fact, historical event, and literary work [8].

I. R. Galperin defines an allusion is an indirect reference, by word or phrase, to a historical, literary, mythological, biblical fact or to a fact of everyday life made in the course of speaking or writing. The use of allusion presupposes that the readers or listeners know the fact, thing or person alluded to. One of the differences between quotation and allusion is that the indication of the source is not given, as a rule. Moreover, a quotation reiterates the exact statement of the original even though the meaning may be different due to the new context; an allusion is only a mention of a word or phrase which may be regarded as the key-word of the utterance [1, 173].

We teach text analysis and try to supply the students with such information which will enable them to form judgments of their own. We try to bring forth in the students a steady habit of trying to see into the deeper implications of various authors’ ideas mirrored in the text. Apart from that detailed attention is paid to various stylistic devices and expressive means. We treat teaching allusion very seriously, as it is not only a literary device but a translation problem.

 Most of the texts we analyse are taken from textbooks by V. D. Arakin. Text Six (Art for heart’s sake, by R. Goldberg) in the third part of this textbook is the students’ first encounter with allusion at these lessons. There are some guiding questions in the textbook. But the students just cannot answer why the story was entitled the way it was, and an allusion to what doctrine is present there. They just do not know that “Art for heart’s sake” is an allusion to the early 19th century slogan, ‘art for art’s sake’ denoting that art has its own value and does not have moral, religious, historical, didactic or political functions. So, first we explain this expression to the students, and then they answer the questions from the textbook.

As a rule, first we pre-teach some information about people, characters or events mentioned in the analysed texts. Then the students read the text again, find the passages referring to the facts they’ve just studied, and explain which type of allusion (biblical, historical, literary, mythological) was used in the extract under discussion. Later, when our students are quite familiar with allusion and its types, they can recognize it by themselves. If they are not sure, they just look this information up, using encyclopedias or various internet sources.

For example, we are fully aware that the students we teach don’t know much about the Bible, most of them consider themselves to be Muslims. But it is not so difficult for them to explain and discuss the effectiveness of the allusion “judgment day” for conveying the students’ fear in examination as the fourth part the textbook requires in text one (From “Doctor in the house” by R. Gordon). The meaning of the phrase “judgment day” is quite clear from the context, the theme under discussion, examinations, is so near to their hearts that they all have something to say. The only problem is that students think this phrase was taken from one of Hollywood films. So, before answering this question, the students do the following assignment: The Bible says that God “has set a day in which he purposes to judge the inhabited earth.” Find the phrase, denoting this day. What stylistic device is it?

The extract taken from “Death of a Hero” by Richard Aldington abounds in various kinds of allusion: historical, literary and mythological. First the students read the text and then do the following assignments:

Find the name of an outstanding English philosopher (1561-1626) (the author refers to his essay ‘of Gardens’). (Answer – Bacon)

Find the names of characters of Shakespeare’s “Winter’s Tale” (they are the symbol of innocent youthful love). (Answer – Florizel and Perdita)

Find the phrase referring to the following: According to Greek mythology, Narcissus was a hunter. He was so impossibly handsome that many nymphs, including Echo, mountain nymph, fell in love with him. As Echo had been cursed she couldn’t remain silent, but she could only repeat the words of others. Narcissus rejected Echo, as he rejected everyone else. She was so heartbroken, that she fled away. We can only hear her voice repeating everything that we say in the mountains. Nemesis, the goddess of revenge, learned of this story and decided to punish Narcissus. She made him fall in love with his own image reflected in a pool of water. (Answer – so unlike a languid youth gazing into a pool)

To consolidate knowledge obtained in previous activities, we use a small collection of ‘fillers’ – things to do when we’ve run out of other things to do, perhaps because the main activity went much faster than expected and there is still some time at the end of the lesson. This collection of fillers includes flash-cards with terms, definitions and examples, funny pictures with some famous sayings, set of questions that should be answered very quickly, as interpreters should react quickly and be ready to work under pressure. We ask questions about historical events, people we’ve already discussed at lessons. But there are some other questions, for instance:

1. In English literature who asked the question ‘To be or not to be?’(Hamlet / Shakespeare)

2. On what day of the week did Robinson Crusoe meet his companion? (Friday)

3. In physics on whose head did the apple fall? (Newton’s)

4. In American history in what city did the famous Tea Party take place in 1773? (Boston)

5. In children’s literature did Alice meet a rabbit or a hare in Wonderland? (a rabbit)

6. Whose name is the Globe Theatre associated with? (Shakespeare)

The aim of asking these questions is to show the students that they already know something about everything.

These fillers are often useful at the start of the lesson as a warmer or mid-lesson as a way of changing the pace, or breaking up similar activities.

To sum up, translation is reproducing or transformation a message in one language into a message in another language. The definitions of translation can vary greatly, but it is a widespread opinion (V. Komissarov, L. Latyshev, A. Chuzhakin, T.P. Klukina, M. Klukina-Vituk, V.K. Lanchikov) that translators should have extensive knowledge of history, culture and religion of the country where the language is spoken. That is why teaching allusion – reference to some biblical, historical, literary, mythological, etc. character or event – for future translators is very important. Combination of this knowledge, abilities and skills will enable a future translator to do their job successfully, or in other words it will help them develop their translation competence.

Список литературы

1. Galperin, I.R. English stylistics Moskva: Vysshaja shkola 1981 – 316 p.
2. Newmark, Peter. Approaches to Translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1981 – 213 p.
3. Nida, Eugene A. and Taber, C. R. The Theory and Practice of translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1969 – 218 p.
4. Schwieter, John W., and Ferreira, Aline, The Development of Translation Competence: Theories and Methodologies from Psycholinguistics and Cognitive Science, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014 – 322 p.
5. Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты) – М.: Высшая школа, 1990. – 253 с.
6. Латышев Л. К. Технология перевода: – 2-е изд., переработанное и дополненное – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2005. – 320 с.
7. Чужакин А.П., Спирина С.Г. Основы последовательного перевода и переводческой скорописи М.: Экспримо, 2007. – 88 с.
8. Большой энциклопедический словарь (БЭС) русского языка [электронный ресурс] –http://slovonline.ru/slovar_ctc/b-0/id-1888/allyuziya.html

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