Дата публикации 27.01.2022
Особенности студентов с нарушениями зрения и пути их преодоления при подготовке к инклюзивному образованию
Абдрешева Мадина Каббасовна
магистр педагогических наук, старший преподаватель, Академия «Болашак»
Абильжан Алтынай Болаткызы
магистр педагогических наук, старший преподаватель, Академия «Болашак», email@example.com
Аннотация: Статья посвящена проблемам, опыту и перспективам развития компенсаторных возможностей у детей с нарушением зрения. В настоящее время наиболее действенным методом является обозначение в картинках видов заданий или этапов урока (символы, разные карточки и т. д.), которые в конце урока помогают детям актуализировать обсуждаемый материал и выбрать тот, который интересует их. удачное для ребенка, на которое он вешает собственное изображение. Благодаря адаптированной общеобразовательной программе открывается путь к инклюзивному образованию, которое помогает наполнить мир яркими, светлыми тонами для «особого ребенка».
Ключевые слова: инклюзивное образование; развитие компенсаторных возможностей; классы защиты зрения; острота зрения; развитие речи; творческая деятельность; широко используемые приемы: «Дерево чувств», «Море радости» и «Море печали»; метод «Точный карандаш».
Master of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer, Academy “Bolashaq”
Master of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer
Abstract: The article is devoted to the problems, experience, and perspective of the development of compensatory possibilities for children with visual disability. At present, the most effective method is to indicate in pictures the types of tasks or stages of the lesson (symbols, different cards, etc.), which at the end of the lesson help children update the material under discussion and choose the one that interests them. successful for the child, on which he hangs his own image. Thanks to the adapted general education program, the path to inclusive education opens, which helps to fill the world with bright, light tones for the "special child".
Keywords: inclusive education; development of compensatory possibilities; classes of vision protection; visual acuity; development of speech; creative activities; widely used technique: "Tree of feelings", "Sea of Joy" and "Sea of Sadness"; "Clockwork Pencil" method.
Абдрешова М.К., Абильжан А.Б. Features of students with visual impairments and ways to overcome them in preparation for inclusive education // Мир педагогики и психологии: международный научно-практический журнал. 2022. № 01 (66). Режим доступа: https://scipress.ru/pedagogy/articles/osobennosti-studentov-s-narusheniyami-zreniya-i-puti-ikh-preodoleniya-pri-podgotovke-k-inklyuzivnomu-obrazovaniyu.html (Дата обращения: 27.01.2022)
Good vision in a child has an important role in school education. According to statistics, vision problems are detected in one child out of twenty preschool children and in one out of four schoolchildren. The reason for this is a sharp increase in visual load when a child enters the first grade. Diseases that have been dormant up to this point manifest themselves very quickly.
In addition, every year the number of children who are at risk for vision increases, that is, children who, even with the appearance of even minor adverse factors, may have vision problems. A decrease in visual acuity entails a violation of visual perception and visual attention, limited knowledge and ideas about the surrounding world, a decrease in the level of development of mental processes, speech disorders, spatial orientation disorders, reduced motor activity, impaired fine and general motor skills. The presence of these difficulties in primary school students with visual impairments inevitably leads to a decrease in academic performance.
The constant situation of failure, especially manifested at the initial stage of learning, becoming a constant source of negative emotions, often develops into negative emotional states, which reduces the positive motivation of educational activities and can cause the formation of negative personality traits of children. In order to minimize stress and help children with impaired vision, by creating special conditions, adapt to learning in general education schools and assimilate the curriculum in full, as well as to assist their parents in teaching and upbringing outside the school, vision protection classes were opened.
The currently implemented inclusive education and upbringing allows children with special needs in development, with health problems to get the opportunity to study in mass educational institutions.
I work in vision protection classes. The specifics of my work: children with disabilities and children with disabilities. My class includes children with various visual impairments: amblyopia, strabismus, hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, partial atrophy of the optic nerves. Almost all have concomitant diseases, many are registered with more than two specialists.
These are special children who have a number of features that later interfere with the full assimilation of the school curriculum: children with impaired vision; fine motor skills; classes of correction; adapted g reduced visual acuity, which entails a violation of visual perception and visual attention,
limited knowledge and understanding of the surrounding world, impaired spatial orientation, speech, motor activity, fine and general motor skills.
Children with visual impairment need the increased attention of the teacher, the competent construction of his educational and educational route, the construction of the trajectory of his life. Given that the formation and development of visual functions takes place before the age of 12, so the earlier children receive the help of the adult community-teachers, specialists and parents, the more successful their psychological development will be, thanks to the unique compensatory capabilities inherent in each child.
Our school has created special, favorable conditions to help children with visual impairments to adapt to education in general education schools, to assimilate the curriculum in full, as well as to assist their parents in teaching and upbringing, realizing that the organization of the learning process in special conditions contributes to the preservation and development of children's vision, and is also an important step in preparing students for inclusive education. Understanding the importance of timely and adequate assistance, effectively built individual development trajectory, thanks to the well-coordinated, systematic work in tandem of doctors, psychologists, teachers, each student has an individual medical, psychological and pedagogical support card. We update the data in the map every six months, so that we can track the dynamics of growth, development, and assimilation of the general educational process of a particular student and adjust the work plan with him, if necessary. The map is accompanied by an individual route for the student, which reflects the directions of work with a special student of each specialist and teacher. The teacher-psychologist conducts individual and subgroup remedial classes general education program.
Students are provided with the necessary medical support with subsequent analysis of the development of visual capabilities. Close cooperation with an ophthalmologist and an orthoptist nurse allows you to solve such tasks as:
1. Development of visual representations of the object world.
2. Development of sensorimotor skills.
3. Formation of ideas about the surrounding world.
4. Activation of visual functions (visual loads): increased visual acuity.
5. Development of speed, completeness and accuracy of visual examination of objects and images.
Due to the small number of visual protection classes (maximum occupancy-15 people) in my class of 10 people, based on the data obtained about the students, I have the opportunity to implement a differentiated, individual approach, pay attention to each child, which contributes to the successful assimilation of the educational program. Only when taking into account the individual and specific characteristics and capabilities of students, the tasks of their social adaptation in the surrounding reality are solved, and preparations are made for successful inclusive learning.
All my educational work is based on the following principles, taking into account the visual capabilities of students.
Compliance with the requirements for wearing an occulder and glasses.
Placement of children in accordance with the occlusion:
- with divergent strabismus-in the direction opposite to the taped eye;
- with convergent squint – towards the taped eye;
- children with divergent strabismus and low visual acuity are closer to the material being demonstrated, so that they can get a better look at the picture or subject under consideration; those with convergent strabismus are further away.
Gentle mode in the educational process, observing sanitary and hygienic standards:
- physical education minutes;
- psycho emotional warm-ups;
- dynamic pauses;
- use of ophthalmic equipment to relieve visual fatigue;
- special exercises to increase visual acuity, develop visual perception and orientation in space.
Dosage of visual load:
- reading, writing no more than 10-15 minutes;
- alternation of activities, accompanied by continuous visual control, with oral forms of work;
- taking into account the fatigue and slowness of their actions.
Selection of visual aids and didactic material according to ophthalmological requirements, corresponding to the state of acuity and field of vision, taking into account the color scheme, size and contour in visual aids. I present all the demonstration material for viewing motionless, so that the children can focus their eyes. On a stand for children with a convergent squint, on a table with a divergent one .
At the request of parents (legal representatives) and the recommendations of medical specialists for the development of compensatory possibilities doing a course on extracurricular activities according to the standard (in the afternoon):
"Zdorovetchi" the use of health technologies
"Young traveler" for the development Outlook
"Rhythm" for the development of the motor sphere of students
"Puppet theatre" the development of fine motor skills
Continuing my speech, I would like to quote the words of the outstanding teacher Vasily Alexandrovich Sukhomlinsky: "The origins of children's abilities and talents are at their fingertips. From the fingers, figuratively speaking, there are the thinnest streams that feed the source of creative thought." One of the sides of the motor sphere, which is directly related to the mastery of object actions, the development of productive activities, writing, speech of the child is fine motor skills. Children with visual impairment especially need the development of fine motor skills of the hands, because well-developed movements and tactile sensitivity largely compensate for the lack of vision.
As a rule, a child with a high level of fine motor skills can reason logically, he has a fairly well-developed memory, attention, thinking, and coherent speech. The entire future life of the child will require the use of precise movements of the hands and fingers, which are necessary to put on shoes, dress, write and draw, as well as perform a variety of household and educational activities. Systematic exercises for training finger movements, according to M. M. Koltsova, are a "powerful tool" for improving the efficiency of the brain. Therefore, I pay great attention to this in my work.
"Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the conditions and organization of training and education in organizations that carry out educational activities according to adapted basic general education programs for students with disabilities" the duration of lessons is no more than 40 minutes. Five minutes before each lesson (classes are included in the class schedule) I'm taking you to a remedial class in the sensory area of the classroom. (I have three of them: working, green, and touch). Therefore, classes are regular. Here are the names of some of them:
- Spiky ball
- Acupuncture (mat)
- Finish Drawing
- Red and white
- Dry pool
- Natural material
The effect of daily activities is maximized due to the fact that all exercises and games correspond to the diagnosis and age of children. The tasks are interesting, exciting, and informative. They bring students joy, avoiding boredom and fatigue.
A very important part of the work is "finger gymnastics (you can do it in any lesson) and finger games" (most often we do it in literary reading lessons).
- with poems, tongue
- by color,
- by lexical topics,
- telling poems, stories, fairy tales.
They are very emotional, contribute to the development of speech, creative activity. During finger games, children repeat the movements of people, animals, and their activities, thereby activating their motor skills.
Self-massage also contributes to the development of the hand and fingers.
- self-massage of the back of the hands,
-self-massage of the palms, - self
-massage of the fingers.
The exercise consists of stroking in the directions from the fingertips to the wrist and vice versa.
You can use a variety of items that will help diversify the warm-up. A variety of games and actions with objects, also contribute to the development of the hand and fingers: buttons
- bottle caps
- loose material
- beads, pasta
- drawing (with pencil, brush, fingers, porous sponges, rubber balls with a rough surface);
- drawing on sand, semolina contribute to the development of tactile and kinesthetic sensitivity, form the primary methods of thinking.
To activate the activity of students with disabilities, you can use the following active teaching methods and techniques:
1. The use of signal cards when performing tasks (on one side it shows a plus, on the other – a minus; circles of different colors by sounds, cards with letters). Children perform the task, or evaluate its correctness. Cards can be used in the study of any topic in order to test the knowledge of students, identify gaps in the material passed. Their convenience and effectiveness lie in the fact that the work of each child is immediately visible.
2. Widely used technique with different color images.
They show the card according to their mood at the beginning and at the end of the lesson. In this case, you can track how the emotional state of the student changes during the lesson.
"Tree of feelings" - students are encouraged to hang red apples on the tree if they feel good, comfortable, or green if they feel uncomfortable.
"Sea of Joy" and "Sea of Sadness" - let your boat go to sea according to your mood [2,3].
Reflection of the end of the lesson.
The most successful at the moment is the designation of the types of tasks or stages of the lesson with pictures (symbols, various cards, etc.), which help children at the end of the lesson to update the material they have passed and choose a favorite, memorable, most successful stage of the lesson for the child, attaching their own picture to it.
3. Very often in math and Russian language lessons I use the "Clockwork Pencil" method .»
- graphic dictation
- pattern drawing
- working with a template
Such games promote the development of fine motor skills, relax the child, relieve emotional tension. Children's curiosity increases; their vocabulary expands; they acquire the skills of playing, learning, and experimental search activities.
The developed system of correctional and educational influences, which are carried out along with medical influences, and sometimes ahead of them in the process of pre-equipment training, contributing to the development of children's visual perception of complex objects and images. This approach to the restoration of visual function in children with visual impairment is necessary for subsequent classes on special medical equipment.
The peculiarity of the development of children with certain visual defects is found in two directions: on the one hand, there are negative consequences of abnormal development due to visual impairment; on the other hand, in the course of training and education, compensatory processes arise and develop, various protective means are mobilized to counteract the disturbed course of development and contribute to the normalization of the central nervous system and the entire body.
The human body has huge reserve opportunities for development. In the process of learning and gaining experience, the neural connections that are located in the cortex of the large hemispheres of the human brain undergo changes and become more complex, mobile and versatile. This increases the cognitive abilities of children and increases their learning ability. Due to the use of other sensory functions (auditory, tactile, muscular and other types of sensitivity), and due to the use of higher forms of cognitive activity, compensatory restructuring occurs. The accumulated knowledge allows you to fill in the gaps of visual perception.
Unlike other types of sensitivity, the visual system has huge opportunities for compensatory development, which in normal vision, as a rule are not used or, if necessary, are only partially used. With the accumulation of knowledge and experience in the learning process, there are various kinds of substitutions and rearrangements that contribute to the restoration, correction of underdeveloped functions.
Compensation processes in children with developmental disabilities have specific features. The fact is that in children, many functions of the central nervous system are in a state of formation. The child's body has a huge plasticity and pliability. When assessing the child's learning ability, it is necessary to take into account not only the formed functions, but also those that are in the stage of maturation and formation. The course of development of visually impaired children follows the same patterns that occur in normal-seeing children. In this regard, in principle, the age periodization, the natural relations between the process of development and the processes of education and upbringing are preserved.
Compensation processes are formed in the learning environment and depend on the content, methods and conditions of educational work, as well as on the development of independent active activity of children. In this regard, training that promotes the activation of higher forms of cognitive activity is important not only for the conscious and deep assimilation of knowledge, but also to compensate for the shortcomings of vision and the versatile development of children. Under the influence of learning, new mental properties appear that contribute to the acceleration of the child's development, new ways of mastering knowledge and skills are formed, which in turn affects the improvement of the visual system.
Thanks to the created conditions, according to the adapted general education program option children have developed a sense of confidence in their abilities. We successfully take all the prizes, take part in all municipal and regional Olympiads and competitions, sports events, festivals. With great pleasure, my children participate in project activities, in concert programs, in creative theatrical performances and most importantly, all students learn the educational program. Successful integration of graduates into general education schools and inclusive classes for further education is being carried out. All graduates of vision protection classes are perfectly socially adapted and fully prepared for life in society, all students have a culture of visual work in the classroom and in everyday life [5,6].
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