Теория и методика профессионального образования | Мир педагогики и психологии №4 (33) Апрель 2019

УДК 37.026; 371.3

Дата публикации 12.04.2019

Digital education as the necessity for modern social development

Grebennikova Veronika Mihailovna
PhD Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Psychology, Pedagogy and Communication Science Faculty, FGBOU VO «Kuban State University», Russia, Krasnodar, vmgrebennikova@mail.ru
Sher Marina Leonidovna
PhD Economics, Assistant Professor of the Economics Department, FGBOU VO «Russian State University of Justice», North Caucasian branch, Russia, Krasnodar, Assistant Professor of the Psychology, Pedagogy and Communication Science faculty, FGBOU VO «Kuban State University», Russia, Krasnodar, mlsher@yandex.ru
Mironov Leonid Valerievich
2nd-year master student of the Psychology, Pedagogy and Communication Science faculty, FGBOU VO «Kuban State University», Russia, Krasnodar, leniamironoff@yandex.ru

Abstract: Authors decided to discuss ways of hermeneutical assistance in studying, explaining hermeneutics as a mind understanding method of humanitarian manifestations, texts and techniques, their meaning and their applications in modern educational process.
Keywords: hermeneutical approaches, modern education, studying process, hermeneutic applications, hermeneutic

The modern world is developing rapidly, making high demands on all members of society. There is a need for creative people who are able to analyze their actions, make their own decisions, predict their possible consequences, have a sense of responsibility for the destiny of the country and its social and economic prosperity, therefore the necessary component of the life of modern society as a whole are innovations and information technologies that are a characteristic feature the current development of the world economy.

In official documents, regulatory and legal acts and various sources there are various definitions of the term  "Information technologies”, like IT are processes, methods of searching, collecting, storing, processing, providing, disseminating information and ways to implement such processes and methods [1], techniques, methods and methods of application of computer facilities in the performance of functions for the collection, storage, processing, transmission and use of data [2] or the resources necessary for the collection, processing, storage and dissemination of information [3]. Such definitions are given in legal acts and regulatory documents. Everyday life of modern man is inextricably linked with the use of IT and our society is already an information society. The world is ruled by information and information technology more than ever before, and this process is gaining momentum.

The scientific and technological revolution has become in recent years a natural, permanent process that determines the development of science-intensive, technically complex industries, an increase in the pace of development of science and technology and their introduction into production, and social life.

In the age of information technology and the rapid development of the sphere of information services, Rothschild's classical phrase "Who owns information that owns the world" reflects the essence of the modern world [4]/

In the modern world, the structure of the economy itself is changing: more and more people are engaged not in the production of goods, but in the receipt and processing of information. In place of the familiar for all economy comes the era of the digital economy, which has a number of features:

- the main resource is information that is inexhaustible;

- retail space on the Internet has no restrictions;

- the size of the company does not affect its competitiveness;

- the same physical resource can be used an infinite number of times to provide various services;

- The scope of operational activities is limited only by the power of the Internet.

The notion of "information society" began to be applied from the second half of the 1960s, the Japanese scholar Yu. Hayashi, a professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, introduced the term into scientific discourse. The information society was defined by him as such, where the process of computerization will give people access to reliable sources of information, relieve them of routine work, and ensure a high level of automation of production. At the same time, production itself will change - its product will become more "information-intensive", which means an increase in the share of innovation, design and marketing in its value.

"Based on quantitative measures of mathematical information theory, D.S. Robertson (USA), which based on the interdependence of civilizational and information processes, put forward the formula "civilization is information", by the amount of information produced ranked the levels of civilization as follows:

• Level 0 - information capacity of the brain of an individual - 107 bits;

• Level 1 - oral communication within the community, village or tribe - the amount of circulating information is 109 bits;

• Level 2 - written culture; a measure of public awareness is the Alexandria Library, which has 532,800 scrolls, which contain 1011 bits of information;

• Level 3 - book culture: there are hundreds of libraries, there are tens of thousands of books, newspapers, magazines, whose total capacity is estimated at 1017 bits;

• Level 4 - information society with electronic processing of information with a volume of 1025 bits".[5]

The main trend in the development of information at the present stage is to improve computer technology in combination with achievements in the field of artificial intelligence and communication media. Picture 1 schematically shows the key points of increasing the competitiveness of the state, provided the information society develops.

Picture 1. Key Factors of Information Society Development

In the modern world, information becomes the basis of the social values ​​of society. Information technology has become an important component of the process of using information resources by society. To date, they have completed several evolutionary stages, the change of which was mainly due to the progress of technology, the emergence of more modern technological means for searching and processing information. The current stage of development is characterized by a change in the direction of the information technology segment from the development of the technical base to the use of available means to create a strategic advantage.

"In 2017, the digital revolution entered a crucial phase - every second inhabitant of the Earth connected to the Internet. According to the Global Institute McKinsey (MGI), in the next 20 years up to 50% of the world's operations can be automated, and in scale this process will be comparable to the industrial revolution of the 18th-19th centuries" [1]. Picture 2 shows properties of data, information and knowledge.

Picture 2. Data, information and knowledge properties

"With the use of information technologies, transformation takes place in all layers of society, in private life, the way of life of people is changing. There is a need for new professions and tools for interaction. The role of electronic resources, which are a combination of information, information infrastructure, entities that collect, form, disseminate and use information, as well as a system for regulating the relations that arise, is increasing. " [1].

"The rapid growth of computer technologies in various spheres of human activity, on the one hand, has allowed to achieve high achievements in these areas, and on the other hand, it has become the source of the most unpredictable and harmful consequences for human society. As a result, we can talk about the emergence of a fundamentally new segment of the international confrontation that affects both the security issues of individual states and the general system of international security at all levels" [2]. Picture 3 shows the relationship between the society informatization.

Picture 3. Categories, concepts, patterns of society informatization

«The information space of any country is called upon to perform certain strategic and tactical functions. Strategic, to create a new social identity, protect against the invasion of others' information, are realized through news and art communication. Tactical, which contribute to the solution of specific tasks of social management, organization of support for power initiatives, informing the population about short-term events, are carried out mainly by news communications. Both strategic and tactical functions of the ministry for developing common models of interpretation of reality, especially in times of crisis» [1].

 Digitalization (digitalization) is a transit process from analogue to digital form. At the heart of digitalization is the process of sequential actions to achieve a result. The meaning of digitization is much broader than the substitution of analog for digital technology. Digitalization means the digitization of all resources that increase in the process of development, improve financial integration and operational efficiency of companies.

The digitalization of education, which is now gaining momentum thanks to the mass dissemination and accessibility of ICT, is designed to expand the range of teaching opportunities and provide a transition to the creative paradigm of education.

«Digitalization exist in  in all daily activities, and  in many professional programs. To keep abreast of new knowledge and skills is to critically depend on digital tools that require training in their lifelong use. These digital tools allow for the delivery of personalized content and, for example, a personalized assessment related to the level of knowledge of the student or employee» [2].

Modern education is aimed at the formation of universal educational activities of students and the development of their personal qualities. An important part of the new generation federal state educational standard we can mention universal educational activities, which include -personal, cognitive, regulatory, communicative. Mastering students with universal educational activities creates the basis for independent successful mastering of new knowledge, skills and competencies, including the organization of mastering, that is, the ability to learn, which is one of the essential aspects of the modern educational process influenced by modern techniques and innovative methods of teaching.

Picture 4. Innovative educational model

In our modern information age the main approach in obtaining education is the teaching aimed at solving the tasks of the project form of the organization of training, in which it is important:

- the use of active forms of cognition: observation, experiments, training dialogue, etc;

- creating conditions for the development of reflection - the ability to recognize and evaluate their thoughts and actions as if from the outside, to correlate the result of the activity with the goal, to determine their knowledge and ignorance.

Dynamism, global contradictions, radical changes in all spheres of public life of new modern effective teaching technologies, allowing to achieve higher results of education and upbringing, to introduce new educational technologies into the educational process. Each specific technology of training has its own characteristics, definition, function, structure, characteristic only for it.

An educational institution becomes not so much a source of information as it teaches to learn; a teacher is not a conductor of knowledge, but a person teaching in the way of creative activity aimed at the independent acquisition and assimilation of new knowledge.

"If a pupil at school has not learned to do anything himself, then in life he will always only imitate, copy, since there are few who, having learned to copy, would be able to make an independent application of this information."

The offensive of the digital economy makes certain demands and the tasks of the teacher will change in the future. New forms of interaction will be created - these are game mechanics, hybrid (as part of a human-machine) team. The teacher will be, rather, not a person telling, but a person who designs an educational route.

In the world, the business model of educational organizations is gaining popularity when the organization receives money not only from students, but also from their potential employers, to whom it provides data on the academic performance and cognitive capabilities of each student. In fact, in this case, the educational organization partially performs the functions of the labor exchange. Under the cognitive style is understood not only the traditional assessment of the student's progress, but also the totality of his behavior throughout the entire training: statistics on compliance with the deadlines for performing tasks, participating in teamwork and others.

But we need to understand that online education can’t replace a fundamental, basic education. Methods of teaching online education is a supplement to the basic education, which will allow to achieve more in view of the modern pace of life. Life is changing so fast now that you need to keep up with it and the most promising are hybrid models that combine online and offline tools.

The digitalization of education, the development of digital libraries and digital book publishing are already becoming a reality, and are supported at the level of state policy. A literate person in a digital context is a person who is able to quickly search and analyze facts, effectively work with programs and files in various digital formats (for example, text, graphics, audio and video) and skillfully use Web resources.

China, Japan and Malaysia, in turn, already today show that it is not so much a school or university that teaches how much the environment, in particular media. Such forms of education as distance education and on-line universities are becoming popular.

With a constant digitalization of education, people will change, including at the biological level.

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