Дата публикации 28.05.2015
ПОЛИЯЗЫЧИЕ В КАЗАХСТАНЕ
Аннотация: Данная статья раскрывает тему о важности полиязычия в Республике Казахстан, задача которой грамотно овладеть тремя языками: казахским, русским и английским. Поэтому Глава государства запустил уникальный проект «триединство языков». Казахский язык - это история, культура, традиции казахского народа. Статус русского языка – язык межнационального общения. Английский язык, на котором говорит большее население планеты дает возможность приблизиться к международному сотрудничеству.
Ключевые слова: полиязычие, триединство языков, поликультурное образование
Karaganda Economic University of Kazpotrebsoyuz
Karaganda Economic University of Kazpotrebsoyuz
Abstract: This article reveals the theme of the importance of polylinguism in Kazakhstan Republic, the task is to master three languages competently: Kazakh, Russian and English. Therefore, the Head of State has launched a unique project "trinity of languages". Kazakh language - is the history, culture and traditions of Kazakh people. The status of the Russian language - the language of interethnic communication. English is spoken by large world population makes it possible to come closer to international cooperation.
Keywords: Polylinguism, the trinity of languages, intercultural education; polylinguism, trinity of languages, polycultural education
Polylinguism is considered as an important direction of development of mankind for a long time to realize. Today it is impossible to imagine that somewhere else there are some countries, people who owned only one language. And in reality, there are no civilized countries, where only one nation lives. For the normal functioning of any multinational state formation is very important bilingualism and polylinguism.
Kazakhstan as a prosperous state, which tends to take a definite place in the world arena. The country’s development largely depends on the level of education of its citizens. Our country is multi-ethnic, and its state problem – issues of language in society. Firstly, the problems relate to the use of languages in formal and informal communication, language teaching in schools and universities and in the relations between nations.
The aim of education at the present stage it is not only knowledge, but also the formation of key competencies, which should give students the possibility of free movement for the future of the society. They include the ability to communicate orally and in writing, it assumes ownership of several languages. In our country we implemented a unique project initiated by the Head of the State – the trinity of languages. The purpose of the project is to hold three languages competently: Kazakh as the state language; Russian is the language of interethnic communication, and English as the international language.
The most important strategic objective in the education of Kazakhstan is the preservation of the best educational traditions also providing school leavers with international qualifications of the development of their linguistic consciousness, based on: to master the state, native and foreign languages.
Nowadays, a lot attention paid to state language, as it is the native language of the Kazakh people, history and culture transmitted for centuries. The role of the Russian language is also important for the citizens of our country. And this band stretches from the Soviet Union.
As we live in an era of innovation, progress, global modernization, the current generation of Kazakhstan tries to keep up with changes in the world. And so, the task of the President to approach international cooperation, thus learn the language spoken by the larger population of the planet.
Polylinguism is the usage of several languages within a given social community (especially the state); usage of several languages by individual or group of people, where each language is selected in accordance with the specific situation of communication[1,303].
Polylinguism – the major direction of culture of interethnic communication. The man, who knows not only the native language but also the languages of other people, is able to communicate with more people, to take up the material and spiritual wealth worked out by native speakers of other people.
In the period of globalization and technologization observed intensification of the search for effective conditions, education of youth mechanisms, the ability is to communicate with other cultures. The history of the company shows that the prosperity of society depends not only on the economy and technology and even on the general culture, and the culture of the word. Indeed, the preparation of a versatile specialist with a high level of culture is the main problem of education today. The realities of the modern stage of society development, the language situation in multinational Kazakhstan with a long history in which the people, nations, culture intertwined, now dictates the need to develop basic principles and methodological approaches to formation of communicative linguistic personality.
In the message the President of Kazakhstan to the people in 2007, “New Kazakhstan in the new world,”, N.A. Nazarbayev noted that in order to ensure the competitiveness of the country and its citizens proposed phased implementation of the cultural project “Trinity of languages”, according to which we need to develop three languages: Kazakh as the state language, Russian as the language of interethnic communication, and English as the language of successful integration into the global economy.
According to the President Nursultan Nazarbayev “Kazakhstan is unique and powerful by its multinational. A unique multicultural space was formed on its land. Polyculture of Kazakhstan is a progressive factor in the development of society. Eurasian roots of Kazakhstan people allow to connect the Eastern, Asian, Western, European flows and create Kazakhstan’s unique version of polyculture”.
On behalf of the President, since 2013, there was introduced learning English from the 1st grade the republic’s schools. Within 5 years, these students will study subjects in English. By the time it is necessary to prepare qualified personnel to carry out such work. Therefore, in previous years concrete and effective measures have been implemented in universities for the preparation of polylingual teaching staff. The new education model will be built on three languages. The Head of State puts the task to the people of Kazakhstan in the short term.
Polycultural education in Kazakhstan at the moment is one of the most important areas in the middle and higher education. Only education is the most important stage in the process of formation and development of a polycultural personality, a stage when consciously formed the core values and principles of life. It is able to provide the student with enabling environment that provides a harmonious blend of universal humanist qualities of the person with the ability to complete the implementation of its national, cultural, ethnic needs.
Knowledge of native, Russian and foreign languages broadens the mind of man, promotes their full development, contributes to the formation and installation tolerance surround vision of the world.
Polylinguism is the basis for the formation of a multicultural identity. Polylingual person is a person who speaks, understands and is able to use a foreign language in various situations of communication. If you study a foreign language it does not mean that you get a good education. We can talk about multilingual education when other academic subjects are taught in foreign languages, e.g. geography, history of language, foreign literature, etc.
The concept of multilingual education was formulated for the achievement of the international standard level to master several foreign languages. This concept implies the emergence of multilingual person with a certain selection of the content, principles of teaching, developing a special process using dictionaries, phrase books and educational materials, where it is possible to specify the similarities and differences between the basic, intermediate and learning a new language. The new technologies of training are necessary to ensure the identity of the content of learning second and third languages, starting with the universal linguistic phenomena specific to proceed to the target language. Polylingual personality is a model of “man, considered in terms of its readiness to make the speech acts, and create and work” in three or more languages [2, 95].
Polylingual competence covers not only the possession of several foreign languages. Polylingual competence is a possession of this system of linguistic knowledge, the ability to identify similarities and differences in the linguistic organization of different languages, understanding of the mechanisms of language and algorithms of speech acts, possession of metacognitive strategies and cognitive development. Polylingual competence is not an indication of knowledge of specific languages, but a single complex, often asymmetrical configuration of competences, which the user can rely on. It develops methods and processes of learning foreign languages, and develops the ability to establish a dialogue and helps to act well in new situations. Polylingual competence enables a successful operation and for self-mastery of the basics of the previously unknown language, so polylinguism competence can be seen not only as a possession of several foreign languages, but also as the ability to learn foreign languages, willingness and ability to independently study foreign languages.
Speaking about polylinguism, we have also to mention about the tendency of expansion of the English. Currently, worldwide English becomes widespread development. The area of active usage of the English language is expanding. The people of the world are worrying about the expansion of the English, expressed in implementation of English in other languages of the world.
Years of development of independent Kazakhstan show that bilingualism and polylinguism society creates all the necessary conditions for progress and development. But it depends on well thought-out language policy of President Nazarbayev and the government of national intelligence and ability to develop the culture and preserve the history and language of the Kazakh people.
It is known that only the state can be successfully developed and is been harmonically in a number of leading countries of the world that is able to create for its citizens decent working conditions for the acquisition of high-quality and modern education.
1. Great Soviet Encyclopedia: Linguistics, 1998.
2. M.R. Kondubaeva. Scientific and historical bases of formation of speech-language and literature teacher bilingual: summary of dissertation work of Doctor of pedagogical sciences - Almaty, 1995. - 339 p.